UK astronomers Elizabeth Stanway, Andrew Bunker and Richard McMahon at the Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, England, have used three of the most powerful telescopes in existence to identify some of the farthest galaxies yet seen. But at the same time, they have encountered a cosmic conundrum: it looks as if there were fewer galaxies forming stars at this early stage in the history of the Universe than in the more recent past. Their results, which will be published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, show for the first time, that astronomers may be probing back to the era when the first stars and galaxies were forming.
Stanway, Bunker and McMahon used the unique power of the Hubble Space Telescope and analysed publicly-available images taken in the direction of the southern hemisphere constellation of Fornax (the Oven) with the new Advanced Camera for Surveys as part of the Great Observatory Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) project. They identified half a dozen objects likely to be galaxies 95 per cent of the way across the observable Universe. The redshifts of these galaxies are about 6 and they are so far away that radiation from them has taken about 13 billion years to reach us. They existed when the Universe was less than a billion years old and seven billion years before the Earth and Sun formed. Intervening gas clouds absorbed visible light from them long before it reached Earth but their infrared light can be detected - and it is their infrared colours which lead the researchers to believe that they lie at such immense distances.
They also used infrared images taken with one of the 8-metre telescopes forming the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile to study these galaxies. "The ESO pictures allowed us to distinguish very distant galaxies at the edge of the observable Universe from objects nearby," said graduate student Elizabeth Stanway, who has identified the galaxies as part of her research for a doctorate in astrophysics at Cambridge.
Elizabeth Stanway | alfa
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Friction stir welding is a still-young and thus often unfamiliar pressure welding process for joining flat components and semi-finished components made of light metals.
Scientists at the University of Stuttgart have now developed two new process variants that will considerably expand the areas of application for friction stir welding.
Technologie-Lizenz-Büro (TLB) GmbH supports the University of Stuttgart in patenting and marketing its innovations.
Friction stir welding is a still-young and thus often unfamiliar pressure welding process for joining flat components and semi-finished components made of...
Optical quantum computers can revolutionize computer technology. A team of researchers led by scientists from Münster University and KIT now succeeded in putting a quantum optical experimental set-up onto a chip. In doing so, they have met one of the requirements for making it possible to use photonic circuits for optical quantum computers.
Optical quantum computers are what people are pinning their hopes on for tomorrow’s computer technology – whether for tap-proof data encryption, ultrafast...
The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP has been developing various applications for OLED microdisplays based on organic semiconductors. By integrating the capabilities of an image sensor directly into the microdisplay, eye movements can be recorded by the smart glasses and utilized for guidance and control functions, as one example. The new design will be debuted at Augmented World Expo Europe (AWE) in Berlin at Booth B25, October 18th – 19th.
“Augmented-reality” and “wearables” have become terms we encounter almost daily. Both can make daily life a little simpler and provide valuable assistance for...
With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. They report on their findings in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.
Elpasolite is a glassy, transparent, shiny and soft mineral with a cubic crystal structure. First discovered in El Paso County (Colorado, USA), it can also be...
For the first time, Fraunhofer IKTS shows additively manufactured hardmetal tools at WorldPM 2016 in Hamburg. Mechanical, chemical as well as a high heat resistance and extreme hardness are required from tools that are used in mechanical and automotive engineering or in plastics and building materials industry. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS in Dresden managed the production of complex hardmetal tools via 3D printing in a quality that are in no way inferior to conventionally produced high-performance tools.
Fraunhofer IKTS counts decades of proven expertise in the development of hardmetals. To date, reliable cutting, drilling, pressing and stamping tools made of...
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28.09.2016 | Event News
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29.09.2016 | Materials Sciences
29.09.2016 | Materials Sciences
29.09.2016 | Interdisciplinary Research