Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Coming up in January’s Physics World . . .

04.01.2008
The magnificent but mysterious snowflake. The beautiful snowflake is much more than an attractive seasonal occurrence. In fact, understanding how a snowflake grows is a complex problem of molecular dynamics, writes Kenneth Libbrecht, Professor of Physics at the California Institute of Technology, in January’s Physics World.

Everyone knows that no two snowflakes are identical to one another. That's because they all start out as a simple hexagonal prism - the most basic form of snow crystal - but then encounter a range of atmospheric conditions as they journey down to Earth.

It was two Japanese physicists who made early strides in our understanding of snowflake formation. Ukichiro Nakaya at the University of Hokkaido in the 1930s and Takehiko Gonda in the 1970s at the Science University of Tokyo found that humidity, temperature, air pressure and other conditions are the variables that determine the shape of a snowflake.

Kenneth Libbrecht writes, “Although no two crystals end up exactly alike, the six arms of a single crystal all travel together, so they all grow in synchrony, giving each falling crystal a unique and intricate structure with a recognisable symmetry.”

The conditions in the atmosphere dictate how water molecules are transported to the crystal but, because of the infinitesimal range of conditions, that makes it hard to simulate snowflake growth and explain how particular structures are formed.

Numerical modelling is now being used to reproduce the complex structures. The work is of particular interest to metallurgists as a better understanding of snowflake structures could profoundly affect the strength and ductility of their own final materials on a micro- or even nano-scale.

Libbrecht continues, “Beyond the intrinsic scientific questions, beyond the practical applications of crystal growth, and beyond the meteorological significance of atmospheric ice, we who ponder snowflakes are motivated by a simple and essential desire to comprehend the natural world around us.”

Also in this issue:

•Funding bombshell hits UK physics
•The physics of dance

Dianne Stilwell | alfa
Further information:
http://www.physicsworld.com/

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Witnessing turbulent motion in the atmosphere of a distant star
23.08.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie

nachricht Heating quantum matter: A novel view on topology
22.08.2017 | Université libre de Bruxelles

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

What the world's tiniest 'monster truck' reveals

23.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Treating arthritis with algae

23.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Witnessing turbulent motion in the atmosphere of a distant star

23.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>