Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Reigning in chaos in particle colliders yields big results

01.07.2014

When beams with trillions of particles go zipping around at near light speed, there's bound to be some chaos. Limiting that chaos in particle colliders is crucial for the groundbreaking results such experiments are designed to deliver.

In a special focus issue of the journal Chaos, from AIP Publishing, a physicist at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) details an important method of detecting and correcting unwanted chaotic behavior in particle colliders. The method is helping accelerator physicists design high-performing, cost-efficient accelerators in an era of constrained science budgets.


A method to correct tiny defects in the LHC's superconducting magnets (example shown above) was crucial to the discovery of the Higgs boson, which was announced in 2012.

Credit: CERN

The aim of the focus issue is to review, comprehensively, the theory and implementation of existing methods of chaos detection and predictability -- as well as to report recent applications of these techniques to different scientific fields. The Focus Issue: Chaos Detection Methods and Predictability is collection of 12 papers representing the wide range of applications, spanning mathematics, physics, astronomy, particle accelerator physics, meteorology and medical research.

Chaos has long bedeviled physicists trying to describe the precise motions of interacting objects. The French mathematician Henri Poincaré discovered the essence of the phenomenon in the late 1800s when he attempted (unsuccessfully) to predict precisely the motions of the solar system's planets. The same chaotic behavior appears in the crowds of particles traveling inside accelerators like CERN's Large Hadron Collider.

In these machines, powerful electric and magnetic fields accelerate and guide beams containing trillions of particles. Ideally all particles would travel in orderly orbits around the rings into which they are injected. But in reality, some of the particles spread out around the ring's center, where they can become chaotic due to their mutual interactions and to defects in the magnetic fields that guide them. Particles that get kicked out of stable orbit can then crash into the collider's ultra-cold superconducting magnets. If this happens too often, the magnets heat up and the particle beams have to stop, which compromises experiments and creates costly delays.

From previous work in astronomy, Yannis Papaphilippou, a physicist at CERN, knew of a method called "frequency map analysis" that relates the frequencies at which objects oscillate to their chaotic behavior. Over the course of more than a decade, Papaphilippou and his colleagues applied the method to visualize those same frequencies in simulations of particle beams in accelerators. Using such simulations, physicists can design colliders to avoid chaotic beam interactions and keep particles on track.

The method has already born fruit. By modeling the extent to which tiny defects in the LHC's superconducting magnets cause protons traveling in the collider's rings to behave chaotically, Papaphilippou and his colleagues helped magnet builders design and produce these magnets within strict tolerance limits. The researchers also showed that only half as many correcting magnets were needed as was originally thought.

These findings substantially reduced the collider's cost and, along with many other efforts, helped streamline the search for the Higgs boson, Papaphilippou said. "All the big discoveries that we've had in the LHC…would have been hampered if there was not a very detailed design and evaluation of the nonlinear effects and their correction." Frequency map analysis has also helped scientists optimize the Spallation Neutron Source in Oak Ridge, Tenn. As a result of this optimization, the machine set a world record last year for power delivery.

As physicists design new accelerators, Papaphilippou predicts they will use frequency map analysis to achieve high performance at reasonable cost. The Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5), which advises the U.S. government, identified collider cost as a major concern in a recent report on the future of particle physics.

"Studying these [chaotic] effects from scratch can be a very-cost effective way to build and design these accelerators," Papaphilippou said.

###

The article, "Detecting chaos in particle accelerators through the frequency map analysis method," is authored by Yannis Papaphilippou. It will appear in the journal Chaos on June 30, 2014. After that date, it will be available at: http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/chaos/24/2/10.1063/1.4884495

ABOUT THE JOURNAL

Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science is devoted to increasing the understanding of nonlinear phenomena and describing the manifestations in a manner comprehensible to researchers from a broad spectrum of disciplines. See: http://chaos.aip.org/

Jason Socrates Bardi | Eurek Alert!

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Nanotechnology for energy materials: Electrodes like leaf veins
27.09.2016 | Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH

nachricht First quantum photonic circuit with electrically driven light source
27.09.2016 | Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: New welding process joins dissimilar sheets better

Friction stir welding is a still-young and thus often unfamiliar pressure welding process for joining flat components and semi-finished components made of light metals.
Scientists at the University of Stuttgart have now developed two new process variants that will considerably expand the areas of application for friction stir welding.
Technologie-Lizenz-Büro (TLB) GmbH supports the University of Stuttgart in patenting and marketing its innovations.

Friction stir welding is a still-young and thus often unfamiliar pressure welding process for joining flat components and semi-finished components made of...

Im Focus: First quantum photonic circuit with electrically driven light source

Optical quantum computers can revolutionize computer technology. A team of researchers led by scientists from Münster University and KIT now succeeded in putting a quantum optical experimental set-up onto a chip. In doing so, they have met one of the requirements for making it possible to use photonic circuits for optical quantum computers.

Optical quantum computers are what people are pinning their hopes on for tomorrow’s computer technology – whether for tap-proof data encryption, ultrafast...

Im Focus: OLED microdisplays in data glasses for improved human-machine interaction

The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP has been developing various applications for OLED microdisplays based on organic semiconductors. By integrating the capabilities of an image sensor directly into the microdisplay, eye movements can be recorded by the smart glasses and utilized for guidance and control functions, as one example. The new design will be debuted at Augmented World Expo Europe (AWE) in Berlin at Booth B25, October 18th – 19th.

“Augmented-reality” and “wearables” have become terms we encounter almost daily. Both can make daily life a little simpler and provide valuable assistance for...

Im Focus: Artificial Intelligence Helps in the Discovery of New Materials

With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. They report on their findings in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.

Elpasolite is a glassy, transparent, shiny and soft mineral with a cubic crystal structure. First discovered in El Paso County (Colorado, USA), it can also be...

Im Focus: Complex hardmetal tools out of the 3D printer

For the first time, Fraunhofer IKTS shows additively manufactured hardmetal tools at WorldPM 2016 in Hamburg. Mechanical, chemical as well as a high heat resistance and extreme hardness are required from tools that are used in mechanical and automotive engineering or in plastics and building materials industry. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS in Dresden managed the production of complex hardmetal tools via 3D printing in a quality that are in no way inferior to conventionally produced high-performance tools.

Fraunhofer IKTS counts decades of proven expertise in the development of hardmetals. To date, reliable cutting, drilling, pressing and stamping tools made of...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

European Health Forum Gastein 2016 kicks off today

28.09.2016 | Event News

Laser use for neurosurgery and biofabrication - LaserForum 2016 focuses on medical technology

27.09.2016 | Event News

Experts from industry and academia discuss the future mobile telecommunications standard 5G

23.09.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

New imaging technique in Alzheimer’s disease - opens up possibilities for new drug development

28.09.2016 | Medical Engineering

Innovate coating extends the life of materials for industrial use

28.09.2016 | Materials Sciences

Blockchain Set to Transform the Financial Services Market

28.09.2016 | Business and Finance

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>