Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Reigning in Chaos in Particle Colliders Yields Big Results

02.07.2014

When beams with trillions of particles go zipping around at near light speed, there’s bound to be some chaos. Limiting that chaos in particle colliders is crucial for the groundbreaking results such experiments are designed to deliver.

In a special focus issue of the journal Chaos, from AIP Publishing, a physicist at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) details an important method of detecting and correcting unwanted chaotic behavior in particle colliders. The method is helping accelerator physicists design high-performing, cost-efficient accelerators in an era of constrained science budgets.


CERN

A method to correct tiny defects in the LHC’s superconducting magnets (example shown above) was crucial to the discovery of the Higgs boson, which was announced in 2012.

The aim of the focus issue is to review, comprehensively, the theory and implementation of existing methods of chaos detection and predictability -- as well as to report recent applications of these techniques to different scientific fields. The Focus Issue: Chaos Detection Methods and Predictability is collection of 12 papers representing the wide range of applications, spanning mathematics, physics, astronomy, particle accelerator physics, meteorology and medical research.

Chaos has long bedeviled physicists trying to describe the precise motions of interacting objects. The French mathematician Henri Poincaré discovered the essence of the phenomenon in the late 1800s when he attempted (unsuccessfully) to predict precisely the motions of the solar system’s planets. The same chaotic behavior appears in the crowds of particles traveling inside accelerators like CERN’s Large Hadron Collider.

In these machines, powerful electric and magnetic fields accelerate and guide beams containing trillions of particles. Ideally all particles would travel in orderly orbits around the rings into which they are injected. But in reality, some of the particles spread out around the ring’s center, where they can become chaotic due to their mutual interactions and to defects in the magnetic fields that guide them.

Particles that get kicked out of stable orbit can then crash into the collider’s ultra-cold superconducting magnets. If this happens too often, the magnets heat up and the particle beams have to stop, which compromises experiments and creates costly delays.

From previous work in astronomy, Yannis Papaphilippou, a physicist at CERN, knew of a method called “frequency map analysis” that relates the frequencies at which objects oscillate to their chaotic behavior. Over the course of more than a decade, Papaphilippou and his colleagues applied the method to visualize those same frequencies in simulations of particle beams in accelerators. Using such simulations, physicists can design colliders to avoid chaotic beam interactions and keep particles on track.

The method has already born fruit. By modeling the extent to which tiny defects in the LHC’s superconducting magnets cause protons traveling in the collider’s rings to behave chaotically, Papaphilippou and his colleagues helped magnet builders design and produce these magnets within strict tolerance limits. The researchers also showed that only half as many correcting magnets were needed as was originally thought.

These findings substantially reduced the collider’s cost and, along with many other efforts, helped streamline the search for the Higgs boson, Papaphilippou said. “All the big discoveries that we’ve had in the LHC…would have been hampered if there was not a very detailed design and evaluation of the nonlinear effects and their correction.”

Frequency map analysis has also helped scientists optimize the Spallation Neutron Source in Oak Ridge, Tenn. As a result of this optimization, the machine set a world record last year for power delivery.

As physicists design new accelerators, Papaphilippou predicts they will use frequency map analysis to achieve high performance at reasonable cost. The Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5), which advises the U.S. government, identified collider cost as a major concern in a recent report on the future of particle physics.

“Studying these [chaotic] effects from scratch can be a very-cost effective way to build and design these accelerators,” Papaphilippou said.

The article, "Detecting chaos in particle accelerators through the frequency map analysis method," is authored by Yannis Papaphilippou. It will appear in the journal Chaos on June 30, 2014. After that date, it will be available at: http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/journal/chaos/24/2/10.1063/1.4884495

ABOUT THE JOURNAL
Chaos: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Nonlinear Science is devoted to increasing the understanding of nonlinear phenomena and describing the manifestations in a manner comprehensible to researchers from a broad spectrum of disciplines. See: http://chaos.aip.org

Jason Socrates Bardi | newswise
Further information:
http://www.aip.org

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Knots in chaotic waves
29.07.2016 | University of Bristol

nachricht International team of scientists unveils fundamental properties of spin Seebeck effect
29.07.2016 | Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Self-assembling nano inks form conductive and transparent grids during imprint

Transparent electronics devices are present in today’s thin film displays, solar cells, and touchscreens. The future will bring flexible versions of such devices. Their production requires printable materials that are transparent and remain highly conductive even when deformed. Researchers at INM – Leibniz Institute for New Materials have combined a new self-assembling nano ink with an imprint process to create flexible conductive grids with a resolution below one micrometer.

To print the grids, an ink of gold nanowires is applied to a substrate. A structured stamp is pressed on the substrate and forces the ink into a pattern. “The...

Im Focus: The Glowing Brain

A new Fraunhofer MEVIS method conveys medical interrelationships quickly and intuitively with innovative visualization technology

On the monitor, a brain spins slowly and can be examined from every angle. Suddenly, some sections start glowing, first on the side and then the entire back of...

Im Focus: Newly discovered material property may lead to high temp superconductivity

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Ames Laboratory have discovered an unusual property of purple bronze that may point to new ways to achieve high temperature superconductivity.

While studying purple bronze, a molybdenum oxide, researchers discovered an unconventional charge density wave on its surface.

Im Focus: Mapping electromagnetic waveforms

Munich Physicists have developed a novel electron microscope that can visualize electromagnetic fields oscillating at frequencies of billions of cycles per second.

Temporally varying electromagnetic fields are the driving force behind the whole of electronics. Their polarities can change at mind-bogglingly fast rates, and...

Im Focus: Continental tug-of-war - until the rope snaps

Breakup of continents with two speed: Continents initially stretch very slowly along the future splitting zone, but then move apart very quickly before the onset of rupture. The final speed can be up to 20 times faster than in the first, slow extension phase.phases

Present-day continents were shaped hundreds of millions of years ago as the supercontinent Pangaea broke apart. Derived from Pangaea’s main fragments Gondwana...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Clash of Realities 2016: 7th Conference on the Art, Technology and Theory of Digital Games

29.07.2016 | Event News

GROWING IN CITIES - Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Urban Gardening

15.07.2016 | Event News

SIGGRAPH2016 Computer Graphics Interactive Techniques, 24-28 July, Anaheim, California

15.07.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Vortex laser offers hope for Moore's Law

29.07.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Novel 'repair system' discovered in algae may yield new tools for biotechnology

29.07.2016 | Life Sciences

Clash of Realities 2016: 7th Conference on the Art, Technology and Theory of Digital Games

29.07.2016 | Event News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>