Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Rainfall Suspected Culprit in Leaf Disease Transmission

21.11.2011
Rainfalls are suspected to trigger the spread of a multitude of foliar (leaf) diseases, which could be devastating for agriculture and forestry.

Instead of focusing on the large-scale, ecological impact of this problem, researchers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge and the University of Liege in Belgium are studying the phenomenon from a novel perspective: that of a single rain droplet.

“One may easily picture that a raindrop impacting a contaminated leaf grabs some of the pathogens there before being ejected and flying towards some healthy plant in the neighborhood,” says University of Liege assistant professor of engineering Tristan Gilet, who will present the team’s research at the upcoming meeting of the American Physical Society (APS) Division of Fluid Dynamics (DFD) in Baltimore, Md., along with MIT colleagues Lydia Bourouiba, a postdoctoral associate, and John Bush, professor of applied mathematics. But a more plausible scenario, Gilet continues, is that bacteria, viruses, and fungi dissolve into rainwater sitting on the surface of a leaf, and that this disease-carrying rainwater is then pushed off the leaf by other raindrops.

Using a high-speed camera to film artificial rainfall on a series of plants, the team identified two patterns of droplet ejection. The first is direct: a raindrop hits pathogen-infested water on a leaf and splashes some of it off. The second is indirect: a raindrop hits the leaf, whose violent movement ejects some of the disease-carrying water that had been sitting on it. From their modeling and experiments, the team concludes that the direct splashing method is a more efficient disease spreader for relatively large and rigid leaves, while smaller and more pliant leaves are more likely to be affected by the indirect method.

The cost of plant diseases is estimated at three billion dollars a year in the United States alone, the researchers write. They say they hope their work will provide some guidance for farmers, by providing suggestions for the optimal spacing between plants, for example.

The talk, “Foliar disease transmission: insights from fluid dynamics,” is at 3:35 p.m. on Monday, Nov. 21, in Room 309.

Abstract: http://meeting.aps.org/Meeting/DFD11/Event/155026

MORE MEETING INFORMATION
The 64th Annual DFD Meeting is hosted by the Johns Hopkins University, the University of Maryland, the University of Delaware and the George Washington University. Howard University and the U.S. Naval Academy are also participating in the organization of the meeting. It will be held at the Baltimore Convention Center, located in downtown Baltimore, Md. All meeting information, including directions to the Convention Center, is at: http://www.dfd2011.jhu.edu/index.html
USEFUL LINKS
Main Meeting Web Site: http://www.dfd2011.jhu.edu/index.html
Search Abstracts: http://meeting.aps.org/Meeting/DFD11/Content/2194
Directions and Maps: http://www.dfd2011.jhu.edu/venuemaps.html
PRESS REGISTRATION
Credentialed full-time journalists and professional freelance journalists working on assignment for major publications or media outlets are invited to attend the conference free of charge. If you are a reporter and would like to attend, please contact Charles Blue (cblue@aip.org, 301-209-3091).
SUPPORT DESK FOR REPORTERS
A media-support desk will be located in the exhibit area. Press announcements and other news will be available in the Virtual Press Room (see below).
VIRTUAL PRESS ROOM
The APS Division of Fluid Dynamics Virtual Press Room features news releases, graphics, videos, and other information to aid in covering the meeting on site and remotely. See: http://www.aps.org/units/dfd/pressroom/index.cfm

Charles Blue | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.aip.org

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Physicists discover that lithium oxide on tokamak walls can improve plasma performance
22.05.2017 | DOE/Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

nachricht Experts explain origins of topographic relief on Earth, Mars and Titan
22.05.2017 | City College of New York

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Wafer-thin Magnetic Materials Developed for Future Quantum Technologies

Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...

Im Focus: World's thinnest hologram paves path to new 3-D world

Nano-hologram paves way for integration of 3-D holography into everyday electronics

An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...

Im Focus: Using graphene to create quantum bits

In the race to produce a quantum computer, a number of projects are seeking a way to create quantum bits -- or qubits -- that are stable, meaning they are not much affected by changes in their environment. This normally needs highly nonlinear non-dissipative elements capable of functioning at very low temperatures.

In pursuit of this goal, researchers at EPFL's Laboratory of Photonics and Quantum Measurements LPQM (STI/SB), have investigated a nonlinear graphene-based...

Im Focus: Bacteria harness the lotus effect to protect themselves

Biofilms: Researchers find the causes of water-repelling properties

Dental plaque and the viscous brown slime in drainpipes are two familiar examples of bacterial biofilms. Removing such bacterial depositions from surfaces is...

Im Focus: Hydrogen Bonds Directly Detected for the First Time

For the first time, scientists have succeeded in studying the strength of hydrogen bonds in a single molecule using an atomic force microscope. Researchers from the University of Basel’s Swiss Nanoscience Institute network have reported the results in the journal Science Advances.

Hydrogen is the most common element in the universe and is an integral part of almost all organic compounds. Molecules and sections of macromolecules are...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Dortmund MST Conference presents Individualized Healthcare Solutions with micro and nanotechnology

22.05.2017 | Event News

Innovation 4.0: Shaping a humane fourth industrial revolution

17.05.2017 | Event News

Media accreditation opens for historic year at European Health Forum Gastein

16.05.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New approach to revolutionize the production of molecular hydrogen

22.05.2017 | Materials Sciences

Scientists enlist engineered protein to battle the MERS virus

22.05.2017 | Life Sciences

Experts explain origins of topographic relief on Earth, Mars and Titan

22.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>