Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Quantum Communication in Random Networks

21.05.2010
Theorists at MPQ find surprising behaviours in quantum random networks.

Internet, networks of connections between Hollywood actors, etc, are examples of complex networks, whose properties have been intensively studied in recent times. The small-world property (that everyone has a few-step connection to celebrities), for instance, is a prominent result derived in this field.


Illustration of a quantum random network

A group of scientists around Professor Cirac, Director at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching near Munich) and Leader of the Theory Division, has now introduced complex networks in the microscopic, so called, quantum regime (Nature Physics, Advanced Online Publication, DOI:10.1038/NPHYS1665).

The scientists have proven that these quantum complex networks have surprising properties: even in a very weakly connected quantum network, performing some measurements and other simple quantum operations allows to generate arbitrary graphs of connections that are otherwise impossible in their classical counterparts.

The behaviour of networks has been widely explored in the context of classical statistical mechanics. Periodic networks, by definition, have a regular structure, in which each node is connected to a constant number of ‘geometrical’ neighbours. If one tries to enlarge these systems, their topology is not altered since the unit cell is just repeated ad aeternum. The construction of a random network is completely different: each node has a small probability of being connected to any other node. Depending on the connection probability and in the limit of infinite size, such networks exhibit some typical effects. For instance, if this probability is high enough, nearly all nodes will be part of one giant cluster; if it is too small only sparse groups of connected nodes will be present.

In a quantum network one link between neighbouring nodes is given by one pair of entangled qubits, for example atoms; in other words, one link in a quantum network represents the entanglement between two qubits. Therefore, a node possesses exactly one qubit for each neighbour, and since it can act on these qubits it is called a ‘station’. This holds for any kind of quantum networks. However, there are different ways of defining the entanglement between neighbouring qubits. Until now, quantum networks have been mostly modelled as periodically structured graphs, that is, lattices. In the work described here the scientists set the amount of entanglement between two nodes to be equal to the connection probability of the classical random graphs.

In the classical case, some specific subgraphs appear suddenly if one lets the connection probability scale with the size of the network: for very low probabilities only trivial connections (simple links) are present in the network, whereas for higher probabilities the subgraphs become more and more complex (e.g., triangles, squares, or stars). In quantum networks, on the other hand, a qualitatively different behaviour emerges: even for the lowest non-trivial connection probability, i.e., if the entanglement between the nodes is, at first sight, just sufficient to get simple connections, it is in fact possible to generate communication subgraphs of any complexity. This result mainly relies on the superposition principle and on the ability to coherently manipulate the qubits at the stations.

“In our article we want to point out that networks with a disordered structure and not periodic lattices have to be studied in the context of quantum communication”, says Sébastien Perseguers, who has worked on this topic in the frame of his doctoral thesis. “In fact, it is well known that real-world communication networks have a complex topology, and we may predict that this will also be the case for quantum networks. Furthermore, we want to emphasize the fact that the best results are obtained if one ‘thinks quantumly’ not only at the connection scale, but also from a global network perspective. In this respect, it is essential to deepen our knowledge of multipartite entanglement, that is, entanglement shared between more than two particles.” In the future the scientists are going to extend their model to networks of a richer structure, the so-called complex networks which describe a wide variety of systems in nature and society, and they expect to find many new and unexpected phenomena. Sébastien Perseguers/Olivia Meyer-Streng

Original Publication:
S. Perseguers, M. Lewenstein, A. Acín and J.I. Cirac
Quantum random networks
Nature Physics, Advanced Online Publication, DOI:10.1038/NPHYS1665
Contact:
Prof. Dr. Ignacio Cirac
Honorary Professor, Technische Universität München
Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics
Hans-Kopfermann-Straße 1
85748 Garching
Phone: +49 - 89 / 32905 705 / 736
Fax: +49 - 89 / 32905 336
E-mail: ignacio.cirac@mpq.mpg.de
Sébastien Perseguers
Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics
Phone: +49 - 89 / 32905 345
Fax: +49 - 89 / 32905 336
E-mail: sebastien.perseguers@mpq.mpg.de

Dr. Olivia Meyer-Streng | Max-Planck-Institut
Further information:
http://www.mpq.mpg.de
http://www.mpq.mpg.de/Theorygroup/CIRAC

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht SF State astronomer searches for signs of life on Wolf 1061 exoplanet
20.01.2017 | San Francisco State University

nachricht Molecule flash mob
19.01.2017 | Technische Universität Wien

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Traffic jam in empty space

New success for Konstanz physicists in studying the quantum vacuum

An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Sustainable Water use in Agriculture in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

19.01.2017 | Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Helmholtz International Fellow Award for Sarah Amalia Teichmann

20.01.2017 | Awards Funding

An innovative high-performance material: biofibers made from green lacewing silk

20.01.2017 | Materials Sciences

Ion treatments for cardiac arrhythmia — Non-invasive alternative to catheter-based surgery

20.01.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>