Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Physicists at Mainz University build pilot prototype of a single ion heat engine

03.02.2014
Nano-heat engine likely to operate at high efficiency / Publication in Physical Review Letters

Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) and the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg are working on a heat engine that consists of just a single ion. Such a nano-heat engine could be far more efficient than, for example, a car engine or a coal-fired power plant.


A single trapped ion in a linear Paul trap with special geometry: The heat engine is being realized by the divergent bars; the squeezing is being caused by establishing special electrical fields.
source: AG Quantum, JGU

A usual heat engine transforms heat into utilizable mechanical energy with the corresponding efficiency of an Otto engine amounting to only about 25 percent, for instance. The proposed nano-heat engine consisting of a single calcium ion would be much more efficient. The main aim of the research being conducted is to better understand how thermodynamics works on very small scales. A pilot prototype of such a single-ion heat engine is currently being constructed at Mainz University.

As the physicists explain in an article recently published in the journal Physical Review Letters, the efficiency of heat engines powered by thermal heat reservoirs is determined by the second law of thermodynamics, one of the fundamental concepts in physics. It was as far back as 1824 that Frenchman Nicolas Carnot calculated the maximum possible efficiency limit of such engines, now known as the Carnot limit. In the case of the newly proposed nano-heat engine, the scientists have been theoretically able to exceed the classic Carnot limit by manipulating the heat baths and exploiting nonequlibrium states.

Calculations and simulations made about a year ago showed for the first time that the thermo-dynamic flow in an internal combustion engine could be reproduced using individual ions. The idea was to use a calcium 40 ion, which has a diameter a million times smaller than that of a human hair, for this purpose. "Individual ions can basically act as the piston and drive shaft or, in other words, represent the entire engine," explained Johannes Roßnagel of the Quantum, Atomic, and Neutron Physics (QUANTUM) work group of the JGU Institute of Physics. Individual ions have already been captured in Paul traps and, using laser beams and electrical fields, not only cooled and heated but also compressed.

"This means we are able to manipulate the pulse location distribution for optimum efficiency," added Roßnagel. "Exceeding the Carnot limit for a standard heat engine thus does not violate the second law of thermodynamics but instead demonstrates that the use of specially prepared, non-thermal heat reservoirs also makes it possible to further improve efficiency." In their publication, the physicists calculated the general Carnot limit for this situation. As the mechanical capacity of a single ion machine is extremely low, it can probably only be used in heating or cooling nano systems.

The intention is now to actually develop the proposed single ion heat engine in initial experiments and construct a prototype in the laboratory.

Publication:
Johannes Roßnagel et al.
Nanoscale Heat Engine Beyond the Carnot Limit
Physical Review Letters, 22 January 2014
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.030602
Images:
http://www.uni-mainz.de/bilder_presse/08_physik_quantum_waermekraftmaschine_1.jpg
Simulation of an Otto cycle of a single ion heat engine: The enclosed area pictures the produced work that is significantly increased by way of squeezing.

source: AG Quantum, JGU

http://www.uni-mainz.de/bilder_presse/08_physik_quantum_waermekraftmaschine_2.jpg
A single trapped ion in a linear Paul trap with special geometry: The heat engine is being realized by the divergent bars; the squeezing is being caused by establishing special electrical fields.

source: AG Quantum, JGU

Further information:
Johannes Roßnagel
Quantum, Atomic, and Neutron Physics (QUANTUM) work group
Institute of Physics
Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU)
D 55099 Mainz, GERMANY
phone +49 6131 39-23671
fax +49 6131 39-23428
e-mail: j.rossnagel@uni-mainz.de
Weitere Informationen:
http://arxiv.org/pdf/1308.5935v2.pdf
- Nanoscale Heat Engine Beyond the Carnot Limit
http://arxiv.org/pdf/1205.1362v1.pdf
- Single-Ion Heat Engine at Maximum Power, Physical Review Letters, November 2012

Petra Giegerich | idw
Further information:
http://www.quantenbit.de
http://www.uni-mainz.de

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht The Exception and its Rules
25.07.2016 | Technische Universität Wien

nachricht New record in materials research: 1 terapascals in a laboratory
22.07.2016 | Universität Bayreuth

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Newly discovered material property may lead to high temp superconductivity

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Ames Laboratory have discovered an unusual property of purple bronze that may point to new ways to achieve high temperature superconductivity.

While studying purple bronze, a molybdenum oxide, researchers discovered an unconventional charge density wave on its surface.

Im Focus: Mapping electromagnetic waveforms

Munich Physicists have developed a novel electron microscope that can visualize electromagnetic fields oscillating at frequencies of billions of cycles per second.

Temporally varying electromagnetic fields are the driving force behind the whole of electronics. Their polarities can change at mind-bogglingly fast rates, and...

Im Focus: Continental tug-of-war - until the rope snaps

Breakup of continents with two speed: Continents initially stretch very slowly along the future splitting zone, but then move apart very quickly before the onset of rupture. The final speed can be up to 20 times faster than in the first, slow extension phase.phases

Present-day continents were shaped hundreds of millions of years ago as the supercontinent Pangaea broke apart. Derived from Pangaea’s main fragments Gondwana...

Im Focus: A Peek into the “Birthing Room” of Ribosomes

Scaffolding and specialised workers help with the delivery – Heidelberg biochemists gain new insights into biogenesis

A type of scaffolding on which specialised workers ply their trade helps in the manufacturing process of the two subunits from which the ribosome – the protein...

Im Focus: New protocol enables analysis of metabolic products from fixed tissues

Scientists at the Helmholtz Zentrum München have developed a new mass spectrometry imaging method which, for the first time, makes it possible to analyze hundreds of metabolites in fixed tissue samples. Their findings, published in the journal Nature Protocols, explain the new access to metabolic information, which will offer previously unexploited potential for tissue-based research and molecular diagnostics.

In biomedical research, working with tissue samples is indispensable because it permits insights into the biological reality of patients, for example, in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

GROWING IN CITIES - Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Urban Gardening

15.07.2016 | Event News

SIGGRAPH2016 Computer Graphics Interactive Techniques, 24-28 July, Anaheim, California

15.07.2016 | Event News

Partner countries of FAIR accelerator meet in Darmstadt and approve developments

11.07.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

The Exception and its Rules

25.07.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

Using Ultrashort Pulsed Laser Radiation to Process Fibre-Reinforced Components

25.07.2016 | Materials Sciences

Added bacterial film makes new mortar resistant to water uptake

25.07.2016 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>