Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

One Kind of Supersymmetry Shown to Emerge Naturally

10.04.2014

A UCSB physicist outlines how this unique phenomenon occurs in a condensed matter system

UC Santa Barbara physicist Tarun Grover has provided definitive mathematical evidence for supersymmetry in a condensed matter system. Sought after in the realm of subatomic particles by physicists for several decades, supersymmetry describes a unique relationship between particles. 


Supersymmetry in a three-dimensional topological superconductor: Ising magnetic fluctuations (denoted by red arrows) at the boundary couple to the fermions (blue cone).

“As yet, no one has found supersymmetry in our universe, including at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC),” said the associate specialist at UCSB’s Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics (KITP). He is referring to the underground laboratory in Switzerland where the famous Higgs boson was identified in 2012. 

“This is a fresh insight as to how supersymmetry arises in nature.” The findings of Grover’s research, conducted with colleagues Donna Sheng and Ashvin Vishwanath, appear in the current online edition of the journal Science. 

The fundamental constituents of matter — electrons, quarks and their relatives — are fermions. The particles associated with fundamental forces are called bosons. Several decades ago, physicists hypothesized that every type of particle in the Standard Model of particle physics, a theory that captures the dynamics of known subatomic particles, has one or more superpartners — other types of particles that share many of the same properties but differ in a crucial way. 

If a particle is a fermion, its superpartner is a boson, and if a particle is a boson, its superpartner is a fermion. This is supersymmetry, a postulated unique theoretical symmetry of space. 

While the Standard Model governing the ordinary world is not supersymmetric, it is often theorized that the more “fundamental” theory relevant to very hot systems, such as those probed in high-energy particle accelerators like the LHC (or higher energy ones yet to be built), might exhibit supersymmetry. This has yet to be proved or disproved by accelerator experiments. 

However, through their calculations, Grover and his co-authors show that supersymmetry emerges naturally in a topological superconductor. An example is helium-3, a light, nonradioactive isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron (common helium has two neutrons). When helium-3 is cooled to almost absolute zero (0 Kelvin), it becomes a liquid superconductor. As understood only recently, the boundary of its container features fermions. 

“The reason these fermions exist is related to time-reversal symmetry, which is unrelated to supersymmetry,” said Grover. A video of an object tossed vertically up in the air is a good example of time-reversal symmetry. When the video is played back, it shows the object following the same parabolic trajectory through the air as it did when the video was played normally. “We wanted to see what would happen to these fermions when time-reversal symmetry was broken,” Grover explained. 

The scientists theorized that the application of a specified amount of magnetic field to the surface of the container would break the time-reversal symmetry. This, in turn, would cause the fermions to disappear due to their interaction with bosons that already exist in the liquid helium-3. Grover and his coauthors found that right at the point when fermions are about to disappear, the fermions and the bosons behave as superpartners of each other, thus providing a condensed matter analog of supersymmetry. 

According to physicists, if supersymmetry can be proved in high-energy experiments, it opens the door to answers that physicists have been seeking for years and may pave the way to analyze and even integrate different fundamental physics theories such as quantum field theory, string theory and Einstein’s relativity. 

“Grover’s team shows that supersymmetry may be studied in low-energy experiments,” said physics professor Leon Balents, Grover’s colleague at KITP. “This would be amazing in its own right and could serve as an inexpensive tabletop model for what to look for at particle accelerators.” 

“Our paper provides insight into how and in what systems supersymmetry may emerge in a very natural way,” Grover said. “Maybe it doesn’t exist in our actual universe, but there exist these condensed matter systems, such as topological superconductors, where supersymmetry can exist. This opens the window for experimentalists to go and test supersymmetry and its exciting consequences in real life.” 

Contact Info: 

Julie Cohen
julie.cohen@ucsb.edu
(805) 893-7220

Julie Cohen | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.news.ucsb.edu/2014/014069/one-kind-supersymmetry-shown-emerge-naturally#

Further reports about: Collider Hadron Institute LHC Model Physics Standard Switzerland experiments mathematical matter underground

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Streamlining accelerated computing for industry
24.08.2016 | DOE/Oak Ridge National Laboratory

nachricht Lehigh engineer discovers a high-speed nano-avalanche
24.08.2016 | Lehigh University

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Streamlining accelerated computing for industry

PyFR code combines high accuracy with flexibility to resolve unsteady turbulence problems

Scientists and engineers striving to create the next machine-age marvel--whether it be a more aerodynamic rocket, a faster race car, or a higher-efficiency jet...

Im Focus: X-ray optics on a chip

Waveguides are widely used for filtering, confining, guiding, coupling or splitting beams of visible light. However, creating waveguides that could do the same for X-rays has posed tremendous challenges in fabrication, so they are still only in an early stage of development.

In the latest issue of Acta Crystallographica Section A: Foundations and Advances , Sarah Hoffmann-Urlaub and Tim Salditt report the fabrication and testing of...

Im Focus: Piggyback battery for microchips: TU Graz researchers develop new battery concept

Electrochemists at TU Graz have managed to use monocrystalline semiconductor silicon as an active storage electrode in lithium batteries. This enables an integrated power supply to be made for microchips with a rechargeable battery.

Small electrical gadgets, such as mobile phones, tablets or notebooks, are indispensable accompaniments of everyday life. Integrated circuits in the interiors...

Im Focus: UCI physicists confirm possible discovery of fifth force of nature

Light particle could be key to understanding dark matter in universe

Recent findings indicating the possible discovery of a previously unknown subatomic particle may be evidence of a fifth fundamental force of nature, according...

Im Focus: Wi-fi from lasers

White light from lasers demonstrates data speeds of up to 2 GB/s

A nanocrystalline material that rapidly makes white light out of blue light has been developed by KAUST researchers.

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

New Ideas for the Shipping Industry

24.08.2016 | Event News

A week of excellence: 22 of the world’s best computer scientists and mathematicians in Heidelberg

12.08.2016 | Event News

Towards the connected, automated and electrified automobiles: AMAA conference in Brussels

02.08.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

New Ideas for the Shipping Industry

24.08.2016 | Event News

Lehigh engineer discovers a high-speed nano-avalanche

24.08.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

Streamlining accelerated computing for industry

24.08.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>