Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

One Kind of Supersymmetry Shown to Emerge Naturally

10.04.2014

A UCSB physicist outlines how this unique phenomenon occurs in a condensed matter system

UC Santa Barbara physicist Tarun Grover has provided definitive mathematical evidence for supersymmetry in a condensed matter system. Sought after in the realm of subatomic particles by physicists for several decades, supersymmetry describes a unique relationship between particles. 


Supersymmetry in a three-dimensional topological superconductor: Ising magnetic fluctuations (denoted by red arrows) at the boundary couple to the fermions (blue cone).

“As yet, no one has found supersymmetry in our universe, including at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC),” said the associate specialist at UCSB’s Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics (KITP). He is referring to the underground laboratory in Switzerland where the famous Higgs boson was identified in 2012. 

“This is a fresh insight as to how supersymmetry arises in nature.” The findings of Grover’s research, conducted with colleagues Donna Sheng and Ashvin Vishwanath, appear in the current online edition of the journal Science. 

The fundamental constituents of matter — electrons, quarks and their relatives — are fermions. The particles associated with fundamental forces are called bosons. Several decades ago, physicists hypothesized that every type of particle in the Standard Model of particle physics, a theory that captures the dynamics of known subatomic particles, has one or more superpartners — other types of particles that share many of the same properties but differ in a crucial way. 

If a particle is a fermion, its superpartner is a boson, and if a particle is a boson, its superpartner is a fermion. This is supersymmetry, a postulated unique theoretical symmetry of space. 

While the Standard Model governing the ordinary world is not supersymmetric, it is often theorized that the more “fundamental” theory relevant to very hot systems, such as those probed in high-energy particle accelerators like the LHC (or higher energy ones yet to be built), might exhibit supersymmetry. This has yet to be proved or disproved by accelerator experiments. 

However, through their calculations, Grover and his co-authors show that supersymmetry emerges naturally in a topological superconductor. An example is helium-3, a light, nonradioactive isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron (common helium has two neutrons). When helium-3 is cooled to almost absolute zero (0 Kelvin), it becomes a liquid superconductor. As understood only recently, the boundary of its container features fermions. 

“The reason these fermions exist is related to time-reversal symmetry, which is unrelated to supersymmetry,” said Grover. A video of an object tossed vertically up in the air is a good example of time-reversal symmetry. When the video is played back, it shows the object following the same parabolic trajectory through the air as it did when the video was played normally. “We wanted to see what would happen to these fermions when time-reversal symmetry was broken,” Grover explained. 

The scientists theorized that the application of a specified amount of magnetic field to the surface of the container would break the time-reversal symmetry. This, in turn, would cause the fermions to disappear due to their interaction with bosons that already exist in the liquid helium-3. Grover and his coauthors found that right at the point when fermions are about to disappear, the fermions and the bosons behave as superpartners of each other, thus providing a condensed matter analog of supersymmetry. 

According to physicists, if supersymmetry can be proved in high-energy experiments, it opens the door to answers that physicists have been seeking for years and may pave the way to analyze and even integrate different fundamental physics theories such as quantum field theory, string theory and Einstein’s relativity. 

“Grover’s team shows that supersymmetry may be studied in low-energy experiments,” said physics professor Leon Balents, Grover’s colleague at KITP. “This would be amazing in its own right and could serve as an inexpensive tabletop model for what to look for at particle accelerators.” 

“Our paper provides insight into how and in what systems supersymmetry may emerge in a very natural way,” Grover said. “Maybe it doesn’t exist in our actual universe, but there exist these condensed matter systems, such as topological superconductors, where supersymmetry can exist. This opens the window for experimentalists to go and test supersymmetry and its exciting consequences in real life.” 

Contact Info: 

Julie Cohen
julie.cohen@ucsb.edu
(805) 893-7220

Julie Cohen | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.news.ucsb.edu/2014/014069/one-kind-supersymmetry-shown-emerge-naturally#

Further reports about: Collider Hadron Institute LHC Model Physics Standard Switzerland experiments mathematical matter underground

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht First direct observation and measurement of ultra-fast moving vortices in superconductors
20.07.2017 | The Hebrew University of Jerusalem

nachricht Manipulating Electron Spins Without Loss of Information
19.07.2017 | Universität Basel

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Manipulating Electron Spins Without Loss of Information

Physicists have developed a new technique that uses electrical voltages to control the electron spin on a chip. The newly-developed method provides protection from spin decay, meaning that the contained information can be maintained and transmitted over comparatively large distances, as has been demonstrated by a team from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute. The results have been published in Physical Review X.

For several years, researchers have been trying to use the spin of an electron to store and transmit information. The spin of each electron is always coupled...

Im Focus: The proton precisely weighted

What is the mass of a proton? Scientists from Germany and Japan successfully did an important step towards the most exact knowledge of this fundamental constant. By means of precision measurements on a single proton, they could improve the precision by a factor of three and also correct the existing value.

To determine the mass of a single proton still more accurate – a group of physicists led by Klaus Blaum and Sven Sturm of the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear...

Im Focus: On the way to a biological alternative

A bacterial enzyme enables reactions that open up alternatives to key industrial chemical processes

The research team of Prof. Dr. Oliver Einsle at the University of Freiburg's Institute of Biochemistry has long been exploring the functioning of nitrogenase....

Im Focus: The 1 trillion tonne iceberg

Larsen C Ice Shelf rift finally breaks through

A one trillion tonne iceberg - one of the biggest ever recorded -- has calved away from the Larsen C Ice Shelf in Antarctica, after a rift in the ice,...

Im Focus: Laser-cooled ions contribute to better understanding of friction

Physics supports biology: Researchers from PTB have developed a model system to investigate friction phenomena with atomic precision

Friction: what you want from car brakes, otherwise rather a nuisance. In any case, it is useful to know as precisely as possible how friction phenomena arise –...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

»We are bringing Additive Manufacturing to SMEs«

19.07.2017 | Event News

The technology with a feel for feelings

12.07.2017 | Event News

Leipzig HTP-Forum discusses "hydrothermal processes" as a key technology for a biobased economy

12.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Researchers create new technique for manipulating polarization of terahertz radiation

20.07.2017 | Information Technology

High-tech sensing illuminates concrete stress testing

20.07.2017 | Materials Sciences

First direct observation and measurement of ultra-fast moving vortices in superconductors

20.07.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>