The Majorana nature of neutrinos and the neutrinoless double-beta decay
Neutrinos are tiny, neutral elementary particles that, contrary to the standard model of physics, have been proven to have mass. One possible explanation for this mass could be that neutrinos are their own antiparticles, so-called Majorana particles.
Though experimental evidence for this is still lacking, many theoretical extensions of the standard model of physics predict the Majorana nature of neutrinos. If this hypothesis proves to be true, many previously unanswered questions about the origin of our universe and the origin of matter could be answered.
650 meters of shielding
In the EXO-200 experiment (Enriched Xenon Observatory), which is operated in the U.S. state of New Mexico, 650 meters below the earth's surface, scientists are looking for the evidence. Physicists from the research group of Professor Peter Fierlinger of the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen are major contributors to this experiment.
The most sensitive method to experimentally verify the Majorana question is the search for a process called "neutrinoless double-beta decay". This process is a special radioactive decay that may only occur if neutrinos are their own antiparticles.
The EXO-200 experiment has searched for these decays over several years. From the fact that not one of these decays has been detected, the scientists can now deduce a lower limit for the half-life of the decay of at least 1025 years – around one million-billion years more than the age of the universe.
"Although this measurement attains unprecedented accuracy, the question about the nature of neutrinos can still not be answered," says Dr. Michael Marino, member of the research group of Professor Peter Fierlinger and responsible for the analysis of the now published data. "That's why this open issue remains one of the most exciting questions in physics."
This result demonstrates the high sensitivity of the detector and also the future potential of this method. Hence the EXO-200 measurements are also the basis for a much larger future experiment that finally could confirm or refute the Majorana nature of neutrinos."
The EXO-200 experiment uses liquid xenon that was enriched to 80.6 percent of xenon-136 in Russian centrifuges. Xenon-136 is an isotope that is allowed by theory to undergo neutrinoless double-beta decay. The experiment's location in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) 650 meters below ground provides shielding against radioactive decays and cosmic radiation.
EXO-200 is a collaboration of research groups from Canada, Switzerland, South Korea, Russia and the USA; the Technische Universitaet Muenchen is the only German partner.
J. B. Albert, et.al., The EXO-200 Collaboration: Search for Majorana neutrinos with the first two years of EXO-200 data, Nature, Adv. online publication, June 5, 2014
Dr. Andreas Battenberg | Eurek Alert!
New quantum phenomena in graphene superlattices
19.09.2017 | Graphene Flagship
Solar wind impacts on giant 'space hurricanes' may affect satellite safety
19.09.2017 | Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University
Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.
Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...
MBM ScienceBridge GmbH successfully negotiated a license agreement between University Medical Center Göttingen (UMG) and the biotech company Tissue Systems Holding GmbH about commercial use of a multi-well tissue plate for automated and reliable tissue engineering & drug testing.
MBM ScienceBridge GmbH successfully negotiated a license agreement between University Medical Center Göttingen (UMG) and the biotech company Tissue Systems...
Pathogenic bacteria are becoming resistant to common antibiotics to an ever increasing degree. One of the most difficult germs is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a...
Scientists from the MPI for Chemical Energy Conversion report in the first issue of the new journal JOULE.
Cell Press has just released the first issue of Joule, a new journal dedicated to sustainable energy research. In this issue James Birrell, Olaf Rüdiger,...
19.09.2017 | Event News
12.09.2017 | Event News
06.09.2017 | Event News
19.09.2017 | Event News
19.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
19.09.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering