An international team of researchers headed by Prof. Dr. Natalia Dubrovinskaia and Prof. Dr. Leonid Dubrovinsky of the University of Bayreuth has succeeded in creating a pressure of 1 trillion pascals in a laboratory. A study published in Science Advances is opening up new research prospects in physics, solid state chemistry, materials science, geophysics, and astrophysics.
The extreme pressures and temperatures that can be achieved and controlled with great precision in a laboratory are ideal objects of investigation in physics, chemistry, and materials science. They allow the structures and properties of materials to be explained, new materials to be synthesized for industrial applications, new material states to be discovered, and a deeper understanding of materials to be achieved, thereby yielding insights into the structure and dynamics of Earth and other planets. For this reason, scientists around the world have a strong research interest in continuing to increase the amount of pressure generated in laboratories for purposes of material analysis.
Until now, the 1-terapascal mark – i.e. 1,000,000,000,000 (one trillion) pascals – was considered a magic threshold. That’s three times higher than the pressure found in Earth’s core. As a point of comparison, it can be thought of as the pressure that would be exerted on a single penny if 100 Eiffel Towers were stacked on top of it.
It is this threshold which the international team of researchers headed by Prof. Dr. Natalia Dubrovinskaia and Prof. Dr. Leonid Dubrovinsky of the University of Bayreuth have now reached and even exceeded. The scientists have now revealed how they were able to break this record in the research magazine Science Advances.
International Research Cooperation
In addition to the Bavarian Research Institute of Experimental Geochemistry & Geophysics (BGI) and the University of Bayreuth’s Laboratory of Crystallography, numerous other research partners were involved: the Center for Advanced Radiation Sources at the University of Chicago, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, the University of Antwerp, the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), and the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University in Kaliningrad. Key experiments were carried out by Bayreuth scientists at the Argonne National Laboratory, a research institute in Chicago under the leadership of the US Department of Energy.
Synthesized in the lab: ultra-hard diamond spheres
Spherical nano-crystalline diamonds have opened a door to a new dimension of materials research. Researchers at the University of Bayreuth synthesized these transparent spheres, each with a diameter of 10-20 micrometres, in a laboratory. As it turns out, they exhibit a highly unusual resistance to pressure due to their unique texture. They are extremely robust when external pressures are exerted on them.
The members of the research team exploited this property for the purpose of creating pressure in excess of 1 terapascal for experiments in materials science. Using a focused ion beam, they first split the ultra-hard diamond spheres in two. The two halves were then installed in a double-sided diamond anvil cell. With the material samples wedged in between being exposed to increasing pressures, they were x-rayed at the electron synchrotron facilities in Chicago. The diffraction pattern yielded by these technologically demanding investigations revealed that the threshold of 1 terapascal had been reached and even exceeded.
Inside the diamond anvil cell: materials tested at extremely high pressures
Diamond anvil cells have been used in high pressure and high temperature research for quite some time. In such research, the sample of the material to be investigated is placed between the two diamonds. These diamonds squeeze the material sample together from both sides resulting in pressure of up to 250 gigapascals.
A few years ago, this research technique was extended in a crucial way at the Bavarian Research Institute of Experimental Geochemistry & Geophysics (BGI) and the University of Bayreuth’s Laboratory of Crystallography. The double-sided diamond anvil cell constructed here enables much higher pressure levels to be achieved. This is due to the half nano-crystalline diamond attached to each of the two diamonds in the cell. The heads of the hemispheres are positioned exactly opposite one another. This allows them to transfer the extreme pressures exerted on them from the outer edges of the larger diamonds to the material samples between them without being destroyed. The key feature of this two-step process is that the pressure transferred to the material sample is multiplied. For the heads of the hemispheres that touch the material sample have a considerably smaller surface than their circular lower surfaces with which they are attached to the larger diamonds.
A key source of pressure resistance in nano-crystalline diamonds is their particle size. The nano-crystalline diamonds with which compression pressure in excess of 1 terapascal was achieved in two-step cells are between 2 and 15 nanometres.
Liquid and gaseous samples also investigated
The research finding that have now been published do not open up new possibilities in physical, chemical, and geo-scientific materials research solely in virtue of having exceeded the 1-terapascal mark. Special seals the scientists installed in the double-sided diamond anvil cell allow not only solid bodies, but also material samples in their original gas or liquid states to be analysed at pressures in excess of 1 terapascal.
Future research prospects
“We are very pleased that we – together with our research partners – were able to contribute to international high pressure and high temperature research in this way”, Prof. Dr. Natalia Dubrovinskaia said. The newly published research findings are expected to be highly relevant to many different branches of research, especially physics, solid state chemistry, materials science, geophysics, and astrophysics. Industry is also expected to benefit from the findings, for example in the development of new hydrogen technologies or high-performance superconductors.
From 4 to 9 September 2016, the European High Pressure Research Group (EHPRG) will convene at the University of Bayreuth for the organization’s annual conference. “New research prospects will, of course, also be a topic at the conference,” Prof. Dubrovinskaia said.
The research in Germany was funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and – as a collaborative research project – by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). Collaborative research project funding is awarded to universities active in developing and establishing innovative methods and instruments for large research institutions. This enables the outstanding competencies of higher education institutions and non-university research institutions to be linked, thereby unlocking synergies.
Natalia Dubrovinskaia, Leonid Dubrovinsky et al.,
Terapascal Static Pressure Generation with Ultrahigh Yield Strength Nanodiamond,
Science Advances, 20 July 2016.
High-resolution photos and illustrations
Prof. Dr. Natalia Dubrovinskaia
Laboratory of Crystallography
University of Bayreuth
Phone: +49 (0)92155 -3880 or -3881
Prof. Dr. Leonid Dubrovinsky
Bavarian Research Institute of Experimental Geochemistry & Geophysics (BGI)
University of Bayreuth
Phone: +49 (0)92155 -3736 or -3707
Christian Wißler | Universität Bayreuth
Engineering team images tiny quasicrystals as they form
18.08.2017 | Cornell University
Astrophysicists explain the mysterious behavior of cosmic rays
18.08.2017 | Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology
Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.
As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...
Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.
Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...
For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.
While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...
An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.
The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...
A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...
16.08.2017 | Event News
04.08.2017 | Event News
26.07.2017 | Event News
18.08.2017 | Life Sciences
18.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
18.08.2017 | Materials Sciences