Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Mining Data Archives Yields Haul of "Red Nuggets"

12.06.2014

The world of astronomy has changed. An astronomer used to have to travel to a remote location and endure long, cold nights, patiently guiding a telescope to collect precious photons of light. Now, a proliferation of online archives allows astronomers to make discoveries from the comfort of their own offices.

By mining such archives, a team of astronomers led by Ivana Damjanov of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) has found a treasure trove of "red nugget" galaxies.These galaxies are compact and densely packed with old, red stars.

Their abundance provides new constraints on theoretical models of galaxy formation and evolution.s research today at a meeting of the Canadian Astronomical Society (CASCA) in Quebec, QC.When the universe was young, dense, massive galaxies nicknamed "red nuggets" were common.

These galaxies are ten times more massive than the Milky Way, but their stars are packed into a volume a hundred times smaller than our Galaxy.Mysteriously, astronomers searching the older, nearer universe could not find any of these objects.Their apparent disappearance, if real, signaled a surprising turn in galaxy evolution.

To find nearby examples, Damjanov and her colleagues Margaret Geller, Ho Seong Hwang, and Igor Chilingarian (Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory) combed through the database of the largest survey of the universe, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.The red nugget galaxies are so small that they appear like stars in Sloan photographs, due to blurring from Earth’s atmosphere.

However, their spectra give away their true nature.The team identified several hundred red nugget candidates in the Sloan data.Then they searched a variety of online telescope archives in order to confirm their findings. In particular, high-quality images from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and the Hubble Space Telescope showed that about 200 of the candidates were galaxies very similar to their red-nugget cousins in the distant, young universe.

"Now we know that many of these amazingly small, dense, but massive galaxies survive. They are a fascinating test of our understanding of the way galaxies form and evolve," explains Geller.The large number of red nuggets discovered in Sloan told the team how abundant those galaxies were in the middle-aged universe.

That number then can be compared to computer models of galaxy formation. Different models for the way galaxies grow predict very different abundances.The picture that matches the observations is one where red nuggets begin their lives as very small objects in the young universe. During the next ten billion years some of them collide and merge with other, smaller and less massive galaxies.

Some red nuggets manage to avoid collisions and remain compact as they age.The result is a variety of elliptical galaxies with different sizes and masses, some very compact and some more extended."Many processes work together to shape the rich landscape of galaxies we see in the nearby universe," says Damjanov.Headquartered in Cambridge, Mass., the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) is a joint collaboration between the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Harvard College Observatory. CfA scientists, organized into six research divisions, study the origin, evolution and ultimate fate of the universe.

For more information, contact:


David A. Aguilar
Director of Public Affairs
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
617-495-7462
daguilar@cfa.harvard.edu

Christine Pulliam
Public Affairs Specialist
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
617-495-7463
cpulliam@cfa.harvard.edu

Leslie Sage
Canadian Astronomical Society
301-675-8957
cascapressofficer@gmail.com

Christine Pulliam | Eurek Alert!
Further information:
http://www.cfa.harvard.edu/news/2014-15

Further reports about: Archives Astronomical Harvard-Smithsonian Observatory Telescope galaxies

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht LIGO confirms RIT's breakthrough prediction of gravitational waves
12.02.2016 | Rochester Institute of Technology

nachricht Milestone in physics: gravitational waves detected with the laser system from LZH
12.02.2016 | Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V.

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Production of an AIDS vaccine in algae

Today, plants and microorganisms are heavily used for the production of medicinal products. The production of biopharmaceuticals in plants, also referred to as “Molecular Pharming”, represents a continuously growing field of plant biotechnology. Preferred host organisms include yeast and crop plants, such as maize and potato – plants with high demands. With the help of a special algal strain, the research team of Prof. Ralph Bock at the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology in Potsdam strives to develop a more efficient and resource-saving system for the production of medicines and vaccines. They tested its practicality by synthesizing a component of a potential AIDS vaccine.

The use of plants and microorganisms to produce pharmaceuticals is nothing new. In 1982, bacteria were genetically modified to produce human insulin, a drug...

Im Focus: The most accurate optical single-ion clock worldwide

Atomic clock experts from the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) are the first research group in the world to have built an optical single-ion clock which attains an accuracy which had only been predicted theoretically so far. Their optical ytterbium clock achieved a relative systematic measurement uncertainty of 3 E-18. The results have been published in the current issue of the scientific journal "Physical Review Letters".

Atomic clock experts from the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) are the first research group in the world to have built an optical single-ion clock...

Im Focus: Goodbye ground control: autonomous nanosatellites

The University of Würzburg has two new space projects in the pipeline which are concerned with the observation of planets and autonomous fault correction aboard satellites. The German Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy funds the projects with around 1.6 million euros.

Detecting tornadoes that sweep across Mars. Discovering meteors that fall to Earth. Investigating strange lightning that flashes from Earth's atmosphere into...

Im Focus: Flow phenomena on solid surfaces: Physicists highlight key role played by boundary layer velocity

Physicists from Saarland University and the ESPCI in Paris have shown how liquids on solid surfaces can be made to slide over the surface a bit like a bobsleigh on ice. The key is to apply a coating at the boundary between the liquid and the surface that induces the liquid to slip. This results in an increase in the average flow velocity of the liquid and its throughput. This was demonstrated by studying the behaviour of droplets on surfaces with different coatings as they evolved into the equilibrium state. The results could prove useful in optimizing industrial processes, such as the extrusion of plastics.

The study has been published in the respected academic journal PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America).

Im Focus: New study: How stable is the West Antarctic Ice Sheet?

Exceeding critical temperature limits in the Southern Ocean may cause the collapse of ice sheets and a sharp rise in sea levels

A future warming of the Southern Ocean caused by rising greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere may severely disrupt the stability of the West...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Symposium on Climate Change Adaptation in Africa 2016

12.02.2016 | Event News

Travel grants available: Meet the world’s most proficient mathematicians and computer scientists

09.02.2016 | Event News

AKL’16: Experience Laser Technology Live in Europe´s Largest Laser Application Center!

02.02.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

LIGO confirms RIT's breakthrough prediction of gravitational waves

12.02.2016 | Physics and Astronomy

Gene switch may repair DNA and prevent cancer

12.02.2016 | Life Sciences

Using 'Pacemakers' in spinal cord injuries

12.02.2016 | Medical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>