Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Light driving light: how an optical transistor operates

11.10.2011
The transistor is one of the most influential inventions of the 20th century.

Its crucial function is to drive electrical signals utilising electrical signals in television sets, telephones, PCs and other devices. The smaller the circuits with which the signals are conducted, the faster the data processing.

At the University of Bayreuth, a research team centred around Prof. Dr. Jürgen Köhler, Dr. Martti Pärs and Prof. Dr. Mukundan Thelakkat has now demonstrated the amplifying function of an optical transistor. The point: in this transistor, light substitutes electricity. Light signals are driven by light signals.

In the recent online edition of the journal "Angewandte Chemie International Edition", the Bayreuth scientists introduce their discovery. Dr. Martti Pärs, a young physicist, made a particularly noteworthy contribution to the research. The results that have now been published evolved from the close co-operation between Experimental Physics and Macromolecular Chemistry within the Bayreuth campus. The results are the foundation of a completely new generation of transistors. The DFG supports the research in this area within the framework of the research training group "Photophysics of synthetic and biological multichromophor systems".

Two molecules in the team:
one light-driven switch and a strongly illuminating partner
The conceptual model of an optical transistor used in Bayreuth is simple. Two molecules are chemically bound. Using light signals with varying wavelengths, one of the two molecules is alternately brought into a state A or B. The molecule thereby reacts like a switch, alternating between two contrasting states. Depending on whether this light-driven molecular switch is in state A or B, the molecule bound to it emits a weak or strong light signal: light driving light. During this process, a considerable amplification effect evolves as a small light signal is sufficient to bring the molecular switch into a condition whereby the partner molecule strongly fluoresces.
Principal benefits:
highest efficiency within a tiny space
A transistor functioning as described above provides considerable benefits compared to conventional transistors: the latter cannot be optionally reduced in size due to physical reasons. All endeavours to develop the smallest possible circuit for the transport of electrical signals are naturally constrained. However the driving of light signals utilising light signals can be realised at a molecular level as the Bayreuth scientists have now demonstrated. In theory, optical transistors may already exist at the molecular scale. They are innately smaller and therefore faster than electrical transistors.

Another benefit: several optical "mini transistors" can be assembled to become a larger and even more powerful transistor because light signals, as opposed to electrical signals, do not interfere with each other. Therefore a multitude of data is processed simultaneously within a tiny space. Finally, any optical transistor regardless of size is superior relating to one aspect: all signals are processed at the speed of light – to be faster is not possible.

Physical details:
the interior of an optical transistor
The switch molecule used in Bayreuth is dithienylcyclopentene (DCP). In the centre of the symmetrical molecule is a carbon ring. The closed ring is opened as soon as it is hit by an ultra-violet ray of light (280 - 310 nm). The open ring is closed as soon as it is exposed to a visible coloured ray of light (500 - 650 nm). DCP is termed in research a photochrome / photoswitch molecule because it alternates, depending upon the light ray’s wavelength, between the two structures.

At the opposite ends of the DCP molecules, the Bayreuth researchers have attached two organic chromophores, belonging to the perylene bisimides (PBI) group. PBI molecules are known for their ability to fluoresce strongly. This is always the case when a PBI molecule absorbs light energy and emits it.

A PBI molecule that is attached like an arm to a DCP molecule fluoresces with varying intensity – depending on whether the ring in the molecular switch is open or closed. When it is closed, the DCP is at a relatively low energy level. Therefore the PBI transfers the greatest part of its absorbed light energy to the DCP. The DCP dissipates light energy without fluorescence. In this case, the PBI weakly fluoresces. However, when the ring in the DCP is open, we observe the opposite. The DCP is at such a high energy level that the PBI is unable to pass on light energy to the DCP. Instead, it fully emits the absorbed light energy. The PBI is strongly fluorescent.

Further research challenges

Based on the above research results, a future vision of a new generation of transistors has emerged. For this vision to be realised one day, further research is necessary. For instance, it seems as if the fluorescent PBI molecules fade during longer periods of time. Consequently, their illumination power weakens. It is worthwhile to examine this effect more closely. A further observation of test conditions used so far is that it takes a relatively long period of time for the rings to open and close for a large number of DCP molecules. As a result, the gaps between the light signals driven by this process are rather large. The Bayreuth research team is therefore striving for a solution in order to minimise these periods of time.

Publication:

Martti Pärs, Christiane C. Hofmann, Katja Willinger, Peter Bauer,
Mukundan Thelakkat, and Jürgen Köhler,
An Organic Optical Transistor Operated under Ambient Conditions,
in: Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2011, 50,
Article first published online: 5 Oct 2011
DOI-Bookmark: 10.1002/anie.201104193
Contact for further information:
Prof. Dr. Jürgen Köhler
Experimental Physics IV
University of Bayreuth
95440 Bayreuth, Germany
Telephone: +49 (0)921 / 55-4000 and 55-4001
Email: Juergen.Koehler@uni-bayreuth.de
Dr. Martti Pärs
Experimental Physics IV
University of Bayreuth
95440 Bayreuth, Germany
Telephone: +49 (0)921 / 55-4003
Email: Martti.Paers@uni-bayreuth.de
Prof. Dr. Mukundan Thelakkat
Applied Functional Polymers
University of Bayreuth
95440 Bayreuth, Germany
Telephone: +49 (0)921 / 55-3108
Email: Mukundan.Thelakkat@uni-bayreuth.de

Christian Wißler | Universität Bayreuth
Further information:
http://www.uni-bayreuth.de

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Measured for the first time: Direction of light waves changed by quantum effect
24.05.2017 | Vienna University of Technology

nachricht Physicists discover mechanism behind granular capillary effect
24.05.2017 | University of Cologne

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: A quantum walk of photons

Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.

The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....

Im Focus: Turmoil in sluggish electrons’ existence

An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.

We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...

Im Focus: Wafer-thin Magnetic Materials Developed for Future Quantum Technologies

Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...

Im Focus: World's thinnest hologram paves path to new 3-D world

Nano-hologram paves way for integration of 3-D holography into everyday electronics

An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...

Im Focus: Using graphene to create quantum bits

In the race to produce a quantum computer, a number of projects are seeking a way to create quantum bits -- or qubits -- that are stable, meaning they are not much affected by changes in their environment. This normally needs highly nonlinear non-dissipative elements capable of functioning at very low temperatures.

In pursuit of this goal, researchers at EPFL's Laboratory of Photonics and Quantum Measurements LPQM (STI/SB), have investigated a nonlinear graphene-based...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Marine Conservation: IASS Contributes to UN Ocean Conference in New York on 5-9 June

24.05.2017 | Event News

AWK Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium 2017: Internet of Production for Agile Enterprises

23.05.2017 | Event News

Dortmund MST Conference presents Individualized Healthcare Solutions with micro and nanotechnology

22.05.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Physicists discover mechanism behind granular capillary effect

24.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Measured for the first time: Direction of light waves changed by quantum effect

24.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Marine Conservation: IASS Contributes to UN Ocean Conference in New York on 5-9 June

24.05.2017 | Event News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>