Experiments performed with the exotic nucleus tin-101, which has a single neutron orbiting tin-100's closed shell of 50 protons and 50 neutrons, indicate an unexpected reversal in the ordering of lowest states in the nucleus. The finding appears to violate a standard scenario offered by the nuclear shell model that has been the cornerstone for understanding the atomic nucleus for more than half a century.
The international team of experimentalists and theorists was led by Iain G. Darby of the University of Tennessee (UT), who is now in Belgium, and Robert Grzywacz, a physics professor at UT and a former Wigner Fellow at ORNL. The experiment, performed at ORNL's Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility, found that the ground states of orbiting neutrons unexpectedly swap when three neutrons are added to the closed-shell tin-100 nucleus.
"In fact, previously the ground state of tin-101 was assumed to be identical to that of tin-103, tin-105, and tin-107. Those conform to the standard picture. But we've found that tin-101 has a flipped ground state," Grzywacz said.
The researchers theorize that the swapping of ground-state spins between tin-101 and tin-103 is due to the neutrons' unusually strong orbital dependence of the pairing interaction and the relatively small difference between orbital energy states in tin-101.
"Neutrons tend to dance in pairs, much like Cooper pairs of electrons in superconductors. But because their angular momentum adds to zero, the pairing shouldn't affect the spin of the nucleus if only few neutrons are involved" said ORNL and UT researcher Witold Nazarewicz.
Grzywacz and Nazarewicz explained that, in the standard shell model, the neutron pairing energy weakly depends on the particle's state. "But it so happens that pairing interaction is different in those two orbits, one with higher energy and one lower. It is orbital dependent," said Nazarewicz, who is scientific director at the Holifield Facility. "With tin-101, those properties are governed by one neutron. If you add two more neutrons, the ground state is determined by the neutron superconductivity, which is very unusual. "
"In practice, the final picture is the two neutrons pair strongly and kick out the third--odd--neutron in tin-103 into another orbit," said Grzywacz. "Three's a crowd."
The experiment required the unique radioactive ion beam capabilities of the Holifield Facility at ORNL, plus digital signal processing instrumentation developed at ORNL to measure the extremely fast alpha particle decays in the neutron-deficient and very unstable tin isotopes. Tin-101 was made in the decay of the extremely short-lived, lightest-known alpha emitter tellurium-105, which was previously discovered by the ORNL-UT team.
The theoretical calculations, based on parameter-free, state-of-the-art nuclear models, were performed in Oslo, Norway, and in Oak Ridge, Tenn.
"We were developing these experimental methods for almost a decade and, combined with advances in computational methods and access to supercomputers such as Jaguar and Kraken at ORNL, they are now bearing fruit," said Grzywacz.
The results of the research, which was funded in part by DOE's Office of Nuclear Physics, have been accepted for publication in Physical Review Letters.
ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy's Office of Science.
NOTE TO EDITORS: You may read other press releases from Oak Ridge National Laboratory or learn more about the lab at http://www.ornl.gov/news. Additional information about ORNL is available at the sites below:
Twitter - http://twitter.com/oakridgelabnews
RSS Feeds - http://www.ornl.gov/ornlhome/rss_feeds.shtml
Flickr - http://www.flickr.com/photos/oakridgelab
YouTube - http://www.youtube.com/user/OakRidgeNationalLab
LinkedIn - http://www.linkedin.com/companies/oak-ridge-national-laboratory
Facebook - http://www.facebook.com/Oak.Ridge.National.Laboratory
Bill Cabage | EurekAlert!
Astronomers find unexpected, dust-obscured star formation in distant galaxy
24.03.2017 | University of Massachusetts at Amherst
Gravitational wave kicks monster black hole out of galactic core
24.03.2017 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...
In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.
Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...
20.03.2017 | Event News
14.03.2017 | Event News
07.03.2017 | Event News
24.03.2017 | Materials Sciences
24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
24.03.2017 | Physics and Astronomy