Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Important step towards quantum computing: Metals at atomic scale

03.03.2015

In the latest issue of the journal Nature Physics, German Scientists report that they could observe experimentally the current flow along channels at the crystal surfaces of topological insulators. The channels are less than one nanometer wide and extend along atomic steps of the crystal lattice. The scientists demonstrated also how these steps can be introduced in any arrangement.

Topological insulators are a hot topic in materials physics. The most prominent feature of these materials is that they act as both insulators and conductors, with their interior preventing the flow of electrical currents while their edges or surfaces allow the movement of charge.


Microscopic image of the topological insulator Bismuth-Rhodium-Iodine (Bi14Rh3I9). The engraved letters BiRhI act as artificially introduced steps at the crystal surface.

Photo: M. Morgenstern, RWTH Aachen


Crystal surface with a step acting as electron channel, left: Scanning Tunnel Microscopy image, right: Scanning Tunnel Spectroscopy

Photo: C. Pauly, RWTH Aachen

German Scientist from RWTH Aachen, Research Center Jülich, TU Dresden and of the Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden report that the current flow on the surface of a topological insulator is channeled along tiny paths, which have been theoretically calculated and experimentally observed.

Their work has been published in the issue from 2 March 2015 of the journal Nature Physics. There they show for Bismuth-Rhodium-Iodine that these channels are tied to one dimensional surface features and run along steps formed by the edges of atomic layers. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy reveals the electron channels to be continuous in both energy and space and less than one nanometer wide.

Due to the properties of topological insulators, electric current flows unimpeded within these channels while charge can barely move from one channel to another. In this way, the surface acts as a set of electric wires that is defined by the atomic steps at the crystals surface. The scientists demonstrated that the surface can be engraved in any arrangement, allowing channel networks to be patterned with nanometer precision.

The channeled current flow enables the transport of electrons while preventing the "scattering" typically associated with power consumption, in which electrons deviate from their trajectory. Thus, the resulting energy losses and heat generation are substantially diminished. These properties make topological insulators interesting for application in electronics. Furthermore, they are expected to enable novel types of information processing such as spintronics or quantum computation. However, the prerequisite for the development of new devices based on topological insulators is a profound understanding of these quantum phenomena. The recent publication marks a milestone in this direction.

During the last decade great effort are being made worldwide to investigate and to describe the transport in topological insulators. In 2013 the team of Professor Michael Ruck at TU Dresden has succeeded for the first time in growing single crystals of Bismuth-Rhodium-Iodine. Jointly with theoreticians from the Leibniz-Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden they concluded that these crystals are topological insulators with electrical conducting channels. The recent experiments at RWTH Aachen and combined calculations in Dresden have now proved this hypothesis.

Publication: C. Pauly, B. Rasche, K. Koepernik, M. Liebmann, M. Pratzer, M. Richter, J. Kellner, M. Eschbach, B. Kaufmann, L. Plucinski, C. M. Schneider, M. Ruck, J. van den Brink, M. Morgenstern, Subnanometre-wide electron channels protected by topology, Nature Physics, March 2015, DOI 10.1038/nphys3264

Further information:

Prof. Dr. Jeroen van den Brink
IFW Dresden
Tel.: 0049 351 / 4659-400
j.van.den.brink@ifw-dresden.de

Prof. Dr. Michael Ruck
TU Dresden
Tel.: 0351 463 33244
Michael.ruck@tu-dresden.de

Prof. Dr. Markus Morgenstern
II. Physikalisches Institut B
Tel. 0049 241 / 80-27076
mmorgens@physik.rwth-aachen.de

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.ifw-dresden.de

Dr. Carola Langer | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht A 100-year-old physics problem has been solved at EPFL
23.06.2017 | Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

nachricht Quantum thermometer or optical refrigerator?
23.06.2017 | National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Quantum thermometer or optical refrigerator?

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A 100-year-old physics problem has been solved at EPFL

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Equipping form with function

23.06.2017 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>