Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Highway for ultracold atoms in light crystals

09.07.2014

LMU/MPQ-physicists succeed in realizing an analogue of the Meissner effect by measuring edge currents in a ladder-like crystal of light.

When a superconductor is exposed to a magnetic field, a current on its surface appears which creates a counter field that cancels the magnetic field inside the superconductor.


Schematic representation of the light crystal with ladder-like shape. The blue and yellow spheres represent the atoms traveling in opposite directions, as in the Meissner phase. In the experiment the strength of the current was measured, which indicated a transition from the vortex to the Meissner phase. (Graphic: MPQ, Quantum Many Body Systems Division)

This phenomenon, known as “Meissner-Ochsenfeld effect” after its discoverers, was first observed in 1933. This quantum effect has found applications in a large variety of fields, ranging from magnetic levitation of objects to medicine and industry.

For the first time, scientists in the group of Professor Immanuel Bloch (Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich and Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, Garching) in collaboration with theoretical physicist Dr. Belén Paredes from the Institute for Theoretical Physics (IFT) in Madrid have succeeded in measuring an analogue of the Meissner effect in an optical crystal with ultracold atoms.

The system realized by the team in fact constitutes the minimal system in which such a Meissner analogue can be observed and realizes theoretical predictions dating back more than 20 years. Furthermore, the scientists have been able to observe a transition from this Meissner phase to a vortex phase where the ‘screening’ of the external field breaks down. (Nature Physics, 2998 (2014)).

When a superconductor is cooled down below its critical temperature, which is typically on the order of a few tens of Kelvin, it undergoes a phase transition to a superconducting state. In that state, in addition to be able to transport electric currents without losses, the material presents a very special feature: when it is exposed to an external magnetic field, a current appears on its surface that fully cancels the field in its core.

As the external field is increased, the strength of the current also increases. This feature, called Meissner effect, is of key importance in condensed matter physics. For some special types of superconductors this effect can only exist up to a critical strength of the external field. If the field is increased above that value, the current flows and spins around imaginary axis forming a vortex-like structure. In that vortex phase, the external field is only partially cancelled.

These two behaviours have been already observed for real materials, and are of fundamental interest for the superconducting properties. “However, this kind of phenomenon had never been observed with ultracold atoms in optical crystals”, explains Marcos Atala, a scientist in the team of Professor Bloch.

In their experiments, an extremely cold gas of Rubidium atoms was loaded into an optical lattice: a periodic structure of bright and dark areas, created by the interference of counter-propagating laser beams. In this lattice structure, the atoms are held in either dark or bright spots, depending on the wavelength of the light, and therefore align themselves in a regular pattern.

The resulting periodic structure of light resembles the geometry of simple solid state crystals where the atoms play the role of the electrons, making it an ideal model system to simulate condensed matter physics. In this case, the experimentalists chose a special lattice configuration, which creates an optical crystal with a ladder-like shape (see Fig. 1).

When the electrons in a material are exposed to a magnetic field, they feel the effect of the Lorentz force, which acts perpendicular to their direction of motion, causing them to move in circles. However, the atoms in the optical crystal are electrically neutral and they do not feel that force.

The experimentalists overcome this difficulty by implementing a special laser configuration that simulates the effect of a magnetic field: they used a pair of lasers that give a momentum kick to the atoms when they move from the left to the right leg of the ladder, and give a kick in the opposite direction when they move from the right to the left leg. These kicking lasers simulate the effect of a magnetic field of several thousand Tesla, something that is practically impossible to achieve with real magnetic fields.

The ladder system that the experimentalists realized also presents a Meissner- and a vortex-like phase, with the only difference that the neutral current here does not produce a backaction and thereby a screening of the magnetic field. In order to see the transition between the two phases, the Munich researchers implemented a protocol to measure the current on the individual legs of the ladder.

That current is maximal in the Meissner phase and has a vortex structure in the vortex phase. The measurement idea was to prepare the atoms in either the Meissner or the vortex phase and then to suddenly split the ladder into an array of isolated two-site systems, similar to when a flowing liquid is suddenly stop by an array of barriers. This method allowed the scientist to determine the strength of the current along the legs of the ladder, and they were able to clearly identify a transition from the vortex phase to the Meissner phase.

This experiment marks an important step forward in the simulation of real material properties using ultracold atoms in optical lattices, and opens the path to the observation of many other phenomena like the quantum Hall effect or even the fractional quantum Hall effect if interparticle interactions are present.

Furthermore, by combining this technique with the new available single site resolution, experimentalist could resolve the vortex structure in the ladder locally. “The new experimental probes help us to gain a better understanding of phase transitions and dynamics of quantum matter under the action of extreme magnetic fields”, points out Prof. Immanuel Bloch.

Original publication:

Marcos Atala, Monika Aidelsburger, Michael Lohse, Julio T. Barreiro, Belén Paredes and Immanuel Bloch
Observation of chiral currents with ultracold atoms in bosonic ladders
Nature Physics 2998 (2014), Advance Online Publication

Contact:

Prof. Dr. Immanuel Bloch
Chair of Quantum Optics, LMU Munich
Schellingstr. 4, 80799 München, and
Director at Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics
Hans-Kopfermann-Straße 1
85748 Garching, Germany
Phone: +49 (0) 89 / 32 905 -138
E-mail: immanuel.bloch@mpq.mpg.de

Dr. Belén Paredes
Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC
C/Nicolás Cabrera 13-15
Cantoblanco
28049 Madrid, Spain
Phone: +34 91 299 9862
E-mail: belen.paredes@csic.es

Dipl. Phys. Marcos Atala
LMU Munich
Phone: +49 89 2180 6133
E-mail: marcos.atala@physik.uni-muenchen.de

Dr. Olivia Meyer-Streng
Press & Public Relations
Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics
Phone: +49 (0) 89 32 905 -213
E-mail: olivia.meyer-streng@mpq.mpg.de

Dr. Olivia Meyer-Streng | Max-Planck-Institut
Further information:
http://www.mpq.mpg.de/

Further reports about: Highway Max-Planck-Institut Phone Physics Quantenoptik Quantum crystals lattice strength structure transition

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht NASA scientist suggests possible link between primordial black holes and dark matter
25.05.2016 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

nachricht The dark side of the fluffiest galaxies
24.05.2016 | Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC)

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Computational high-throughput screening finds hard magnets containing less rare earth elements

Permanent magnets are very important for technologies of the future like electromobility and renewable energy, and rare earth elements (REE) are necessary for their manufacture. The Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM in Freiburg, Germany, has now succeeded in identifying promising approaches and materials for new permanent magnets through use of an in-house simulation process based on high-throughput screening (HTS). The team was able to improve magnetic properties this way and at the same time replaced REE with elements that are less expensive and readily available. The results were published in the online technical journal “Scientific Reports”.

The starting point for IWM researchers Wolfgang Körner, Georg Krugel, and Christian Elsässer was a neodymium-iron-nitrogen compound based on a type of...

Im Focus: Atomic precision: technologies for the next-but-one generation of microchips

In the Beyond EUV project, the Fraunhofer Institutes for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen and for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering IOF in Jena are developing key technologies for the manufacture of a new generation of microchips using EUV radiation at a wavelength of 6.7 nm. The resulting structures are barely thicker than single atoms, and they make it possible to produce extremely integrated circuits for such items as wearables or mind-controlled prosthetic limbs.

In 1965 Gordon Moore formulated the law that came to be named after him, which states that the complexity of integrated circuits doubles every one to two...

Im Focus: Researchers demonstrate size quantization of Dirac fermions in graphene

Characterization of high-quality material reveals important details relevant to next generation nanoelectronic devices

Quantum mechanics is the field of physics governing the behavior of things on atomic scales, where things work very differently from our everyday world.

Im Focus: Graphene: A quantum of current

When current comes in discrete packages: Viennese scientists unravel the quantum properties of the carbon material graphene

In 2010 the Nobel Prize in physics was awarded for the discovery of the exceptional material graphene, which consists of a single layer of carbon atoms...

Im Focus: Transparent - Flexible - Printable: Key technologies for tomorrow’s displays

The trend-forward world of display technology relies on innovative materials and novel approaches to steadily advance the visual experience, for example through higher pixel densities, better contrast, larger formats or user-friendler design. Fraunhofer ISC’s newly developed materials for optics and electronics now broaden the application potential of next generation displays. Learn about lower cost-effective wet-chemical printing procedures and the new materials at the Fraunhofer ISC booth # 1021 in North Hall D during the SID International Symposium on Information Display held from 22 to 27 May 2016 at San Francisco’s Moscone Center.

Economical processing

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Networking 4.0: International Laser Technology Congress AKL’16 Shows New Ways of Cooperations

24.05.2016 | Event News

Challenges of rural labor markets

20.05.2016 | Event News

International expert meeting “Health Business Connect” in France

19.05.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

LZH shows the potential of the laser for industrial manufacturing at the LASYS 2016

25.05.2016 | Trade Fair News

Great apes communicate cooperatively

25.05.2016 | Life Sciences

Thermo-Optical Measuring method (TOM) could save several million tons of CO2 in coal-fired plants

25.05.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>