Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Giant star goes supernova -- and is smothered by its own dust

13.10.2010
A giant star in a faraway galaxy recently ended its life with a dust-shrouded whimper instead of the more typical bang.

Ohio State University researchers suspect that this odd event -- the first one of its kind ever viewed by astronomers – was more common early in the universe.

It also hints at what we would see if the brightest star system in our galaxy became a supernova.

In a paper published online in the Astrophysical Journal, Christopher Kochanek, a professor of astronomy at Ohio State, and his colleagues describe how the supernova appeared in late August 2007, as part of the Spitzer Space Telescope Deep Wide Field Survey.

The astronomers were searching the survey data for active galactic nuclei (AGN), super-massive black holes at the centers of galaxies. AGN radiate enormous amounts of heat as material is sucked into the black hole. In particular, the astronomers were searching for hot spots that varied in temperature, since these could provide evidence of changes in how the material was falling into the black hole.

Normally, astronomers wouldn’t expect to find a supernova this way, explained then-Ohio State postdoctoral researcher Szymon Kozlowski. Supernovae release most of their energy as light, not heat.

But one very hot spot, which appeared in a galaxy some 3 billion light years from Earth, didn’t match the typical heat signal of an AGN. The visible spectrum of light emanating from the galaxy didn’t show the presence of an AGN, either – the researchers confirmed that fact using the 10-meter Keck Telescope in Hawaii.

Enormous heat flared from the object for a little over six months, then faded away in early March 2008 – another clue that the object was a supernova.

“Over six months, it released more energy that our sun could produce in its entire lifetime,” Kozlowski said.

The astronomers knew that if the source were a supernova, the extreme amount of energy it emitted would qualify it as a big one, or a “hypernova.” The temperature of the object was around 1,000 Kelvin (about 700 degrees Celsius) -- only a little hotter than the surface of the planet Venus. They wondered -- what could absorb that much light energy and dissipate it as heat?

The answer: dust, and a lot of it.

Using what they learned from the Spitzer survey, the astronomers worked backward to determine what kind of star could have spawned the supernova, and how the dust was able to partly muffle the explosion. They calculated that the star was probably a giant, at least 50 times more massive than our sun. Such massive stars typically belch clouds of dust as they near the end of their existence.

This particular star must have had at least two such ejections, they determined – one about 300 years before the supernova, and one only about four years before it. The dust and gas from both ejections remained around the star, each in a slowly expanding shell. The inner shell – the one from four years ago – would be very close to the star, while the outer shell from 300 years ago would be much farther away.

“We think the outer shell must be nearly opaque, so it absorbed any light energy that made it through the inner shell and converted it to heat,” said Kochanek, who is also the Ohio Eminent Scholar in Observational Cosmology.

That’s why the supernova showed up on the Spitzer survey as a hot dust cloud.

Krzysztof Stanek, professor of astronomy at Ohio State, said that stars probably choked on their own dust much more often in the distant past.

“These events are much more likely to happen in a small, low metallicity galaxy,” he said -- meaning a young galaxy that hadn’t been around long enough for its stars to fuse hydrogen and helium into the more complex chemicals that astronomers refer to as “metals.”

Still, Kozlowski added that more such supernovae will likely be found by NASA’s Wide-field Infrared Explorer (WISE), which was launched in December 2009. “I would expect WISE to see 100 of these events in two years, now that we know what to look for,” he said.

Because of the alignment of the galaxy with Earth and our sun, astronomers were not able to see what the event looked like to the naked eye while it was happening. But Kochanek believes that we might see the star brighten a decade or so from now. That’s how long it will take for the shockwave from the exploding star to reach the inner dust shell and slam it into the outer shell. Then we’ll have something to see here on Earth.

We do have at least one chance to see a similar light show closer to home, though.

“If Eta Carinae went supernova right now, this is what it would probably look like,” Kochanek said, referring to the brightest star system in our Milky Way Galaxy.

The two stars that make up Eta Carinae are 7,500 light years away, and they host a distinctive dust shell dubbed the Homunculus Nebula, among other layers of dust. Astronomers believe that the nebula was created when the larger of the two stars underwent a massive eruption around 1840, and that future eruptions are likely.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., manages the Spitzer Space Telescope mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Science operations are conducted at the Spitzer Science Center at the California Institute of Technology, also in Pasadena. Caltech manages JPL for NASA.

This work was sponsored by NASA and the National Science Foundation. Kozlowski has since taken a new postdoctoral position at Warsaw University Observatory in Poland.

Contact: Christopher Kochanek, (614) 292-5954; Kochanek.1@osu.edu or Szymon Kozlowski, (614) 292-1773; simkoz@astronomy.ohio-state.edu or simkoz@astrouw.edu.pl

Written by Pam Frost Gorder, (614) 292-9475; Gorder.1@osu.edu

Christopher Kochanek | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://researchnews.osu.edu/archive/dustynova.htm
http://www.osu.edu

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht NASA's Fermi catches gamma-ray flashes from tropical storms
25.04.2017 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

nachricht DGIST develops 20 times faster biosensor
24.04.2017 | DGIST (Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology)

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

7th International Conference on Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics in Freiburg on April 3-5, 2017

03.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

NASA's Fermi catches gamma-ray flashes from tropical storms

25.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Researchers invent process to make sustainable rubber, plastics

25.04.2017 | Materials Sciences

Transfecting cells gently – the LZH presents a GNOME prototype at the Labvolution 2017

25.04.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>