In a uniform cylinder, both the mobility and the diffusion coefficient of the particle are independent of the driving force. This is not true, however, when the cylinder diameter varies. Constrictions provide periodic entropic barriers, which slow down drift and diffusion when the driving force is weak. This research examined two types of cylinders.
In the first, a tube consisted of sequential spherical compartments connected by small circular openings. The driving force suppressed the slowdown due to the constrictions. The particle subjected to a strong driving force showed no change in effective diffusion coefficient or mobility as a result of the periodic restrictions. In a tube of cylindrical chambers, however, the results were dramatically different. Under a strong driving force, mobility decreased while the diffusion coefficient became extremely large due to intermittency that occurred in the particle transitions between openings connecting neighboring compartments.
While author Alexander Berezhkovskii of the National Institutes of Health acknowledges that the original idea for the project was inspired by devices that deliver drugs locally in small amounts, he looks at the research as a quest for a broader understanding. “Nature is very complicated because of geometry, but we are looking for something simple that underlies the complexity,” he says.
The article, "Drift and diffusion in a tube of periodically varying diameter. Driving force induced intermittency" by Alexander Berezhkovskii et al will appear in the Journal of Chemical Physics. See: http://jcp.aip.org/
Journalists may request a free PDF of this article by contacting email@example.com.ABOUT THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS
Jason Socrates Bardi | Newswise Science News
First Juno science results supported by University of Leicester's Jupiter 'forecast'
26.05.2017 | University of Leicester
Measured for the first time: Direction of light waves changed by quantum effect
24.05.2017 | Vienna University of Technology
Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....
Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.
The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....
An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.
We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...
Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.
Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...
An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...
24.05.2017 | Event News
23.05.2017 | Event News
22.05.2017 | Event News
26.05.2017 | Life Sciences
26.05.2017 | Life Sciences
26.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy