Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Galaxies out of a Supercomputer

08.05.2014

A new computer simulation shows the formation of galaxies with unprecedented precision, allowing astrophysicists from Heidelberg, the U.S. and England to indirectly confirm the standard model of cosmology.

Galaxies are typically comprised of several hundred billion stars and display a variety of shapes and sizes. The formation of galaxies is one of the most involved and complex problems of astrophysics.


Several views of the Illustris simulation at different scales. Astrophysicist Volker Springel (HITS) wrote the AREPO code that made this simulation possible.

Image: Illustris


Images of the simulated population of galaxies, arranged along the classical Hubble sequence (“tuning fork” diagram) for morphological classification.

Image: Illustris

In cooperation with an international team of scientists at the MIT, Harvard University and other institutions, scientists at the Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies (HITS) have now succeeded in simulating the physics of galaxy formation in a vast region of space with very high accuracy.

In the journal Nature, they report that the calculation yielded for the first time a realistic mix of elliptical and spiral galaxies. Moreover, the simulation can explain the enrichment of heavy elements (so-called “metals”) in neutral hydrogen gas. In addition, the calculated galaxies are distributed in space as observed with telescopes.

The “Illustris” simulation project produced more than 200 terabyte of data and required the combined power of more than 8,000 processors for several months. The simulation was possible thanks to the AREPO code for cosmological structure formation, which was developed at HITS, and the supercomputers CURIE in France and SuperMUC in Germany. The virtual universe that the scientists created allows a variety of novel predictions as well as comprehensive tests of cosmological theories of galaxy formation.

The standard model of cosmology is based on the hypothesis that the Universe is dominated by unknown forms of matter and energy. We do not know the true physical nature of dark matter and dark energy yet, but their impact can be understood with the help of supercomputers.

Previous simulations of the cosmos generated a cosmic web of matter concentrations that showed a passing resemblance to the galaxy distribution. However, they were not able to create elliptical and spiral galaxies and follow the small-scale evolution of interstellar gas and stars, which are closely linked to each other. With the ambitious “Illustris” project, the cosmologists have now taken a major step towards addressing this issue.

In the world’s largest hydrodynamic simulation of galaxy formation, 13 billion years of cosmic evolution were followed in a cube of 350 million light-years across, beginning 12 million years after the Big Bang. During this time, the “primordial soup” consisting of hydrogen, helium gas and dark matter formed increasingly big clumps, pulled together by gravity.

Finally, galactic stellar systems developed, whose growth is regulated by the complex interplay between radiation processes, hydrodynamic shock waves, turbulent flows, star formation, supernova explosions and the energy supplied through growing supermassive black holes. The Illustris team was able to calculate these physical processes with the AREPO code in its new supercomputer simulation. AREPO is a “moving mesh code”, which does not partition the simulated universe with a fixed grid but rather uses a movable and deformable mesh, which allows a particularly accurate processing of the vastly different size and mass scales occurring in individual galaxies.

The main simulation of the project employed more than 18 billion particles and cells and bridges a dynamic range of more than one million per space dimension – if a photo needed to resolve similarly small details, it would have to offer one million megapixels. The memory consumption of the Illustris simulation was more than 25 terabyte, and the generated data volume of over 200 terabyte sets a new record in cosmology. This flood of data makes it possible to study the evolution of about 50,000 well-resolved galaxies in detail, and to make theoretical predictions for cosmological structure formation with high accuracy.

Several years of preparatory work for the simulation paid off: For the first time, the famous “tuning fork diagram” of galaxy morphology, which goes back to Edwin Hubble, can be reproduced. Mark Vogelsberger (MIT), first author of the initial study on Illustris, published in Nature, says: “It is remarkable that the universe’s initial conditions as observed after the Big Bang can actually produce galaxies with the right sizes and shapes.”

Indirectly, the findings can be regarded as a confirmation of the standard model of cosmology. “We can finally leave the old and coarse models of galaxy formation behind and not only precisely calculate dark matter, but also the ordinary visible matter,” says Prof. Volker Springel, group leader of the HITS research group “Theoretical Astrophysics” and author of the AREPO code. He adds: “The Illustris results mark a radical change in theoretical studies of galaxy formation.”

Press Contact:
Dr. Peter Saueressig
Public Relations
Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies (HITS)
Tel.: +49-6221-533-245
Fax: +49-6221-533-298
peter.saueressig@h-its.org
www.h-its.org

Scientific Contact:
Prof. Dr. Volker Springel
Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies (HITS) / Heidelberg University
Tel: +49-6221-533-241
volker.springel@h-its.org
www.h-its.org

Original scientific publication:
M. Vogelsberger, S. Genel, V. Springel, P. Torrey, D. Sijacki, D. Xu, G. Snyder, S. Bird, D. Nelson, L. Hernquist. “Properties of galaxies reproduced by a hydrodynamic simulation”, Nature, May 8, 2014, doi:10.1038/nature13316

Further links:
Website of the Illustris Project (with further visualizations): http://www.illustris-project.org
Gauss Centre for Supercomputing: http://www.gauss-centre.eu
SuperMUC at the Leibniz Computing Center: http://www.lrz.de/services/compute/supermuc
AREPO-Code: V. Springel, 2010, MNRAS, 401, 791 http://mnras.oxfordjournals.org/content/401/2/791.full.html

HITS
The Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies is a private, non-profit research institute. As a research institute of the Klaus Tschira Foundation, HITS conducts basic research from astrophysics to cell biology, with a focus on processing and structuring large volumes of data. The institute is jointly managed by Klaus Tschira and Andreas Reuter, and located at the campus area Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35.

Weitere Informationen:

http://www.h-its.org/english/press/pressreleases.php?we_objectID=1080 HITS press release
http://www.illustris-project.org Website of the Illustris project

Dr. Peter Saueressig | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Further reports about: Galaxies HITS MIT Supercomputer Tschira dark galaxies hydrodynamic matter structure

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Astronomers identify a young heavyweight star in the Milky Way
22.08.2016 | University of Cambridge

nachricht Venus-like exoplanet might have oxygen atmosphere, but not life
19.08.2016 | Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: X-ray optics on a chip

Waveguides are widely used for filtering, confining, guiding, coupling or splitting beams of visible light. However, creating waveguides that could do the same for X-rays has posed tremendous challenges in fabrication, so they are still only in an early stage of development.

In the latest issue of Acta Crystallographica Section A: Foundations and Advances , Sarah Hoffmann-Urlaub and Tim Salditt report the fabrication and testing of...

Im Focus: Piggyback battery for microchips: TU Graz researchers develop new battery concept

Electrochemists at TU Graz have managed to use monocrystalline semiconductor silicon as an active storage electrode in lithium batteries. This enables an integrated power supply to be made for microchips with a rechargeable battery.

Small electrical gadgets, such as mobile phones, tablets or notebooks, are indispensable accompaniments of everyday life. Integrated circuits in the interiors...

Im Focus: UCI physicists confirm possible discovery of fifth force of nature

Light particle could be key to understanding dark matter in universe

Recent findings indicating the possible discovery of a previously unknown subatomic particle may be evidence of a fifth fundamental force of nature, according...

Im Focus: Wi-fi from lasers

White light from lasers demonstrates data speeds of up to 2 GB/s

A nanocrystalline material that rapidly makes white light out of blue light has been developed by KAUST researchers.

Im Focus: Every atom counts

Malignant cancer cells not only proliferate faster than most body cells. They are also more dependent on the most important cellular garbage disposal unit, the proteasome, which degrades defective proteins. Therapies for some types of cancer exploit this dependence: Patients are treated with inhibitors, which block the proteasome. The ensuing pile-up of junk overwhelms the cancer cell, ultimately killing it. Scientists have now succeeded in determining the human proteasome’s 3D structure in unprecedented detail and have deciphered the mechanism by which inhibitors block the proteasome. Their results will pave the way to develop more effective proteasome inhibitors for cancer therapy.

In order to understand how cellular machines such as the proteasome work, it is essential to determine their three-dimensional structure in detail. With its...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

A week of excellence: 22 of the world’s best computer scientists and mathematicians in Heidelberg

12.08.2016 | Event News

Towards the connected, automated and electrified automobiles: AMAA conference in Brussels

02.08.2016 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2016: 7th Conference on the Art, Technology and Theory of Digital Games

29.07.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

New microchip demonstrates efficiency and scalable design

23.08.2016 | Information Technology

Genetic Regulation of the Thymus Function Identified

23.08.2016 | Life Sciences

Biomass turnover time in ecosystems is halved by land use

23.08.2016 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>