Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Experiment to Challenge Sun’s Inferno

05.10.2010
A brave little experiment being designed and built at The University of Alabama in Huntsville will endure temperatures approaching 2 million degrees Fahrenheit in an attempt to help scientists explain why the sun’s atmosphere is so hot.

Unlike other instruments being built for NASA’s Solar Probe Plus, the Solar Wind Electrons, Alphas and Protons (SWEAP) experiment won’t sit comfortably behind the thick solar shield that is designed to protect the probe. Instead, SWEAP will be in front of the shield collecting data about protons, electrons and helium ions streaming away from the sun in the “pristine” solar wind.

“We wanted to put something way out in front of the shield to sample the solar wind, although that is not a very friendly environment,” said Dr. Gary Zank, one of the instrument’s creators and director of the Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR) at UAHuntsville.

SWEAP, says Zank, is in large part one result of the unique environment at the National Space Science and Technology Center, where CSPAR sits adjacent with NASA’s Space Sciences Laboratory. That made it easy for Zank and NASA astrophysicist Jonathan Cirtain to brainstorm the idea of putting an experiment in front of Solar Probe Plus (SPP).

“Jonathan’s just down the corridor,” said Zank. “We’re talking constantly and this dovetails extremely well. They have the materials that can survive in that environment and we know the physics of this area around the sun, so we provided the theoretical expertise. We have people on campus who can work with this material, which is some kind of a ceramic, so we were able to go into a lab here to do plasma etching on the prototype.”

SWEAP will be one of five instruments on SPP, which is scheduled for launch in 2018. The size of an automobile, SPP’s exotic orbit will take it within 3.5 million miles of the sun. That is inside the orbit of Mercury and twice as close to the sun as the next nearest previous solar probe. It will approach the sun 35 times during its eight-year mission to study the sun, solar wind and space weather.

Looking like a cup no more than nine inches across, SWEAP will collect data from particles in the solar wind. Scientists hope that data will help them solve the mystery of the sun's super heated atmosphere.

“If you plot the temperature of the sun, it is really hot in the core, more than 6 million degrees Kelvin,” Zank said. “As you go out toward the surface the temperature drops in an expected way until you get to the surface, where the temperature is about 6,000 degrees K. (That is more than 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit. -ed).

“As you go up away from the sun that temperature drops until you get about 500 kilometers up and then the temperature starts to climb. At about 20,000 kilometers high something really odd happens. Over a scale of only 100 and 200 kilometers, suddenly the temperature increases from 20,000 K to more than 1 million degrees Kelvin.

“Why does it do that?” Zank asked. “Nobody knows. That’s the mystery.”

Temperatures in the sun’s corona can exceed 10 million K. That extreme heat is responsible for the solar wind. (“It’s like boiling a huge pot of water and driving out a steam that is the solar wind.”) The solar wind creates the heliosphere, a bubble in interstellar space that engulfs the solar system.

There are several competing theories about why particles in the sun’s atmosphere heat so rapidly and so hot, including one Zank was involved in developing. That theory says magnetic fields in the sun generate turbulence that dumps energy into the transition area and corona. Other theories point to small flares on the sun, x-ray flares and high-frequency waves.

“The probe will be spending a lot of time in the corona, so we’re going to be seeing all of this at its genesis,” Zank said. “We expect this will allow us to determine whether any of these proposed mechanisms is a viable explanation for what is going on there or whether we need to come up with new theories.”

Dr. Justin Kaspar at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics is the principal investigator for the SWEAP instrument. Team members include: UAHuntsville, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, University of California-Berkeley, MIT and Los Alamos.

Dr. Gary Zank
256.961.7403
zank@cspar.uah.edu
OR
Ray Garner
256.824.6397
ray.garner@uah.edu

Dr. Gary Zank | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.uah.edu

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy under real ambient pressure conditions
28.06.2017 | National Institutes of Natural Sciences

nachricht New photoacoustic technique detects gases at parts-per-quadrillion level
28.06.2017 | Brown University

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Supersensitive through quantum entanglement

28.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy under real ambient pressure conditions

28.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Mice provide insight into genetics of autism spectrum disorders

28.06.2017 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>