Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

An Exotic Millisecond Pulsar Trio

06.01.2014
Previous studies of millisecond pulsars have explained their origin via mass transfer in binary systems.

The discovery of a millisecond pulsar in a triple system challenges current consensus. Thomas Tauris (Bonn) and Ed van den Heuvel (Amsterdam) have developed a semi-analytical model, which can resolve the puzzling formation of this exotic triple system.


Triple millisecond pulsar with its two white dwarf companions. According to the new model, the system survived three phases of mass transfer and a supernova explosion, remaining dynamically stable.

Thomas Tauris

Through theoretical calculations on the base of stellar evolution, they have demonstrated a plausible model which brings new insight to our knowledge of stellar interactions in multiple star systems. Their study can also help explain an increasing number of observed binary millisecond pulsars which seem to require a triple system origin.

Pulsars are among the most extreme celestial bodies known. They have radii of only 10 kilometres, but at the same time a mass exceeding that of our Sun. Pulsars are formed as the remnants of violent supernova explosions of massive stars. The fastest rotating neutron stars are known as millisecond pulsars. They are thought to be strongly magnetized, old neutron stars which have been spun up to high rotational frequencies by accumulation of mass and angular momentum from a companion star in a binary system. Today we know of about 200 such pulsars with spin periods between 1.4 and 10 milliseconds. These are located in both the Galactic Disk and in Globular Clusters.

Since the first binary pulsar was detected in 1974, theoretical astrophysicists have investigated mass transfer between stars and other binary interactions in order to explain their origin. A surprising new discovery has now revealed a millisecond pulsar in a triple system with two white dwarf companions, posing a unique challenge to stellar physicists to explain its formation.

"This is a truly amazing system with three degenerate objects. It has survived three phases of mass transfer and a supernova explosion, and yet it remained dynamically stable", says Thomas Tauris, theoretical astrophysicist and first author of the present study. "Pulsars have previously been found with planets and in recent years my observational colleagues have discovered a number of peculiar binary pulsars which seem to require a triple system origin. But this new millisecond pulsar is the first to be detected with two white dwarfs".

The new triple millisecond pulsar J0337+1715 was discovered recently by a joint American-European collaboration led by Scott Ransom from National Radio Astronomy Observatory (USA). The system is located in the constellation of Taurus at a distance of about 4000 light-years. It is in the Galactic disk, and not inside a globular cluster. Therefore, its existence cannot be explained simply as a result of dynamical encounter events in a dense stellar environment. During the last 6 months, Thomas Tauris and Ed van den Heuvel have developed a semi-analytical model to explain its existence. One of the key results obtained from their investigation is that the observed parameters reflect that both white dwarfs were indeed produced in the present system.

Triple systems often become dynamically unstable during their evolution leading to expulsion of one of the three stars. A major challenge was to find a solution that remained dynamically stable throughout the entire evolution, including the stage of the supernova explosion. "An interesting result of our new investigation is that the system evolved through a common envelope stage where both white dwarf progenitor stars were dragged into the envelope of the massive star due to frictional forces, causing their orbits to shrink by a large factor, thereby enabling survival of its subsequent explosion", says Ed van den Heuvel.

"Actually, we can apply several tests of stellar evolution with this new system and also make predictions about its 3-dimensional velocity which can be measured within a few years", concludes Thomas Tauris. "This will allow us to constrain the mass of the exploding star."

--------------------

This work has profited from a recent effort to bridge the Fundamental Physics in Radio Astronomy group at the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR), led by Michael Kramer, with the Stellar Physics group at the Argelander-Institut für Astronomie (AIfA) at University of Bonn, led by Norbert Langer. Michael Kramer and his colleagues are using the 100-m Effelsberg Radio Telescope to participate in several ongoing searches and discoveries of millisecond pulsars, while the stellar physicists at AIfA are modelling their formation and evolution.

Thomas Tauris has been working at the AIfA and MPIfR as a visiting research professor since 2010. Some of his recent work on the recycling of millisecond pulsars has been published jointly with Norbert Langer, Michael Kramer and other colleagues in Bonn. Together they host twice per year an international one-day workshop in Bonn, called Formation and Evolution of Neutron stars.

Original Paper:

Formation of the Galactic Millisecond Pulsar Triple System PSR J0337+1715 - a Neutron Star with Two Orbiting White Dwarfs , T. M. Tauris & E. P. J. van den Heuvel, 2014, Astrophysical Journal Letters, scheduled for online publication on January 06, 2014.

Pulsar Discovery Paper:

A millisecond pulsar in a stellar triple system, S.M. Ransom et al., 2014, Nature Online Publishing, doi:10.1038/nature12917.

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/abs/nature12917.html

Local Contact:

Dr. Thomas M. Tauris
Argelander-Institut für Astronomie der Univ. Bonn
& Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie
Phone: +49(0)228-73-3660
E-mail: tauris@astro.uni-bonn.de
Prof. Dr. Michael Kramer,
Director and Head of Research Group "Fundamental Physics in Radio Astronomy",
Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Bonn.
Phone: +49(0)228-525-278
E-mail: mkramer@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de
Dr. Norbert Junkes,
Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie.
Press and Public Outreach,
Phone: +49(0)228-525-399
E-mail: njunkes@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de
Co-author Contact:
Prof. Dr. Ed van den Heuvel
Astronomical Institute `Anton Pannekoek´
Universiteit van Amsterdam
Phone: +31 (0) 20 525 7493
E-mail: E.P.J.vandenHeuvel@uva.nl

Norbert Junkes | Max-Planck-Institut
Further information:
http://www.mpifr-bonn.mpg.de
http://www.mpifr-bonn.mpg.de/pressreleases/2014/1

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Tiniest Particles Shrink Before Exploding When Hit With SLAC's X-ray Laser
05.02.2016 | Tohoku University

nachricht Scientists create new state of matter: Quantum gas, liquid and crystal all-in-one
02.02.2016 | Universität Stuttgart

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Wbp2 is a novel deafness gene

Researchers at King’s College London and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in the United Kingdom have for the first time demonstrated a direct link between the Wbp2 gene and progressive hearing loss. The scientists report that the loss of Wbp2 expression leads to progressive high-frequency hearing loss in mouse as well as in two clinical cases of children with deafness with no other obvious features. The results are published in EMBO Molecular Medicine.

The scientists have shown that hearing impairment is linked to hormonal signalling rather than to hair cell degeneration. Wbp2 is known as a transcriptional...

Im Focus: From allergens to anodes: Pollen derived battery electrodes

Pollens, the bane of allergy sufferers, could represent a boon for battery makers: Recent research has suggested their potential use as anodes in lithium-ion batteries.

"Our findings have demonstrated that renewable pollens could produce carbon architectures for anode applications in energy storage devices," said Vilas Pol, an...

Im Focus: Automated driving: Steering without limits

OmniSteer project to increase automobiles’ urban maneuverability begins with a € 3.4 million budget

Automobiles increase the mobility of their users. However, their maneuverability is pushed to the limit by cramped inner city conditions. Those who need to...

Im Focus: Microscopy: Nine at one blow

Advance in biomedical imaging: The University of Würzburg's Biocenter has enhanced fluorescence microscopy to label and visualise up to nine different cell structures simultaneously.

Fluorescence microscopy allows researchers to visualise biomolecules in cells. They label the molecules using fluorescent probes, excite them with light and...

Im Focus: NASA's ICESat-2 equipped with unique 3-D manufactured part

NASA's follow-on to the successful ICESat mission will employ a never-before-flown technique for determining the topography of ice sheets and the thickness of sea ice, but that won't be the only first for this mission.

Slated for launch in 2018, NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) also will carry a 3-D printed part made of polyetherketoneketone (PEKK),...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

AKL’16: Experience Laser Technology Live in Europe´s Largest Laser Application Center!

02.02.2016 | Event News

From intelligent knee braces to anti-theft backpacks

26.01.2016 | Event News

DATE 2016 Highlighting Automotive and Secure Systems

26.01.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Laser instead of Reading Glasses?

09.02.2016 | Life Sciences

Wbp2 is a novel deafness gene

09.02.2016 | Life Sciences

Ocean acidification makes coralline algae less robust

08.02.2016 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>