Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


An Exotic Millisecond Pulsar Trio

Previous studies of millisecond pulsars have explained their origin via mass transfer in binary systems.

The discovery of a millisecond pulsar in a triple system challenges current consensus. Thomas Tauris (Bonn) and Ed van den Heuvel (Amsterdam) have developed a semi-analytical model, which can resolve the puzzling formation of this exotic triple system.

Triple millisecond pulsar with its two white dwarf companions. According to the new model, the system survived three phases of mass transfer and a supernova explosion, remaining dynamically stable.

Thomas Tauris

Through theoretical calculations on the base of stellar evolution, they have demonstrated a plausible model which brings new insight to our knowledge of stellar interactions in multiple star systems. Their study can also help explain an increasing number of observed binary millisecond pulsars which seem to require a triple system origin.

Pulsars are among the most extreme celestial bodies known. They have radii of only 10 kilometres, but at the same time a mass exceeding that of our Sun. Pulsars are formed as the remnants of violent supernova explosions of massive stars. The fastest rotating neutron stars are known as millisecond pulsars. They are thought to be strongly magnetized, old neutron stars which have been spun up to high rotational frequencies by accumulation of mass and angular momentum from a companion star in a binary system. Today we know of about 200 such pulsars with spin periods between 1.4 and 10 milliseconds. These are located in both the Galactic Disk and in Globular Clusters.

Since the first binary pulsar was detected in 1974, theoretical astrophysicists have investigated mass transfer between stars and other binary interactions in order to explain their origin. A surprising new discovery has now revealed a millisecond pulsar in a triple system with two white dwarf companions, posing a unique challenge to stellar physicists to explain its formation.

"This is a truly amazing system with three degenerate objects. It has survived three phases of mass transfer and a supernova explosion, and yet it remained dynamically stable", says Thomas Tauris, theoretical astrophysicist and first author of the present study. "Pulsars have previously been found with planets and in recent years my observational colleagues have discovered a number of peculiar binary pulsars which seem to require a triple system origin. But this new millisecond pulsar is the first to be detected with two white dwarfs".

The new triple millisecond pulsar J0337+1715 was discovered recently by a joint American-European collaboration led by Scott Ransom from National Radio Astronomy Observatory (USA). The system is located in the constellation of Taurus at a distance of about 4000 light-years. It is in the Galactic disk, and not inside a globular cluster. Therefore, its existence cannot be explained simply as a result of dynamical encounter events in a dense stellar environment. During the last 6 months, Thomas Tauris and Ed van den Heuvel have developed a semi-analytical model to explain its existence. One of the key results obtained from their investigation is that the observed parameters reflect that both white dwarfs were indeed produced in the present system.

Triple systems often become dynamically unstable during their evolution leading to expulsion of one of the three stars. A major challenge was to find a solution that remained dynamically stable throughout the entire evolution, including the stage of the supernova explosion. "An interesting result of our new investigation is that the system evolved through a common envelope stage where both white dwarf progenitor stars were dragged into the envelope of the massive star due to frictional forces, causing their orbits to shrink by a large factor, thereby enabling survival of its subsequent explosion", says Ed van den Heuvel.

"Actually, we can apply several tests of stellar evolution with this new system and also make predictions about its 3-dimensional velocity which can be measured within a few years", concludes Thomas Tauris. "This will allow us to constrain the mass of the exploding star."


This work has profited from a recent effort to bridge the Fundamental Physics in Radio Astronomy group at the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR), led by Michael Kramer, with the Stellar Physics group at the Argelander-Institut für Astronomie (AIfA) at University of Bonn, led by Norbert Langer. Michael Kramer and his colleagues are using the 100-m Effelsberg Radio Telescope to participate in several ongoing searches and discoveries of millisecond pulsars, while the stellar physicists at AIfA are modelling their formation and evolution.

Thomas Tauris has been working at the AIfA and MPIfR as a visiting research professor since 2010. Some of his recent work on the recycling of millisecond pulsars has been published jointly with Norbert Langer, Michael Kramer and other colleagues in Bonn. Together they host twice per year an international one-day workshop in Bonn, called Formation and Evolution of Neutron stars.

Original Paper:

Formation of the Galactic Millisecond Pulsar Triple System PSR J0337+1715 - a Neutron Star with Two Orbiting White Dwarfs , T. M. Tauris & E. P. J. van den Heuvel, 2014, Astrophysical Journal Letters, scheduled for online publication on January 06, 2014.

Pulsar Discovery Paper:

A millisecond pulsar in a stellar triple system, S.M. Ransom et al., 2014, Nature Online Publishing, doi:10.1038/nature12917.

Local Contact:

Dr. Thomas M. Tauris
Argelander-Institut für Astronomie der Univ. Bonn
& Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie
Phone: +49(0)228-73-3660
Prof. Dr. Michael Kramer,
Director and Head of Research Group "Fundamental Physics in Radio Astronomy",
Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Bonn.
Phone: +49(0)228-525-278
Dr. Norbert Junkes,
Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie.
Press and Public Outreach,
Phone: +49(0)228-525-399
Co-author Contact:
Prof. Dr. Ed van den Heuvel
Astronomical Institute `Anton Pannekoek´
Universiteit van Amsterdam
Phone: +31 (0) 20 525 7493

Norbert Junkes | Max-Planck-Institut
Further information:

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Present-day measurements yield insights into clouds of the past
27.05.2016 | Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI)

nachricht NASA scientist suggests possible link between primordial black holes and dark matter
25.05.2016 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Worldwide Success of Tyrolean Wastewater Treatment Technology

A biological and energy-efficient process, developed and patented by the University of Innsbruck, converts nitrogen compounds in wastewater treatment facilities into harmless atmospheric nitrogen gas. This innovative technology is now being refined and marketed jointly with the United States’ DC Water and Sewer Authority (DC Water). The largest DEMON®-system in a wastewater treatment plant is currently being built in Washington, DC.

The DEMON®-system was developed and patented by the University of Innsbruck 11 years ago. Today this successful technology has been implemented in about 70...

Im Focus: Computational high-throughput screening finds hard magnets containing less rare earth elements

Permanent magnets are very important for technologies of the future like electromobility and renewable energy, and rare earth elements (REE) are necessary for their manufacture. The Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM in Freiburg, Germany, has now succeeded in identifying promising approaches and materials for new permanent magnets through use of an in-house simulation process based on high-throughput screening (HTS). The team was able to improve magnetic properties this way and at the same time replaced REE with elements that are less expensive and readily available. The results were published in the online technical journal “Scientific Reports”.

The starting point for IWM researchers Wolfgang Körner, Georg Krugel, and Christian Elsässer was a neodymium-iron-nitrogen compound based on a type of...

Im Focus: Atomic precision: technologies for the next-but-one generation of microchips

In the Beyond EUV project, the Fraunhofer Institutes for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen and for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering IOF in Jena are developing key technologies for the manufacture of a new generation of microchips using EUV radiation at a wavelength of 6.7 nm. The resulting structures are barely thicker than single atoms, and they make it possible to produce extremely integrated circuits for such items as wearables or mind-controlled prosthetic limbs.

In 1965 Gordon Moore formulated the law that came to be named after him, which states that the complexity of integrated circuits doubles every one to two...

Im Focus: Researchers demonstrate size quantization of Dirac fermions in graphene

Characterization of high-quality material reveals important details relevant to next generation nanoelectronic devices

Quantum mechanics is the field of physics governing the behavior of things on atomic scales, where things work very differently from our everyday world.

Im Focus: Graphene: A quantum of current

When current comes in discrete packages: Viennese scientists unravel the quantum properties of the carbon material graphene

In 2010 the Nobel Prize in physics was awarded for the discovery of the exceptional material graphene, which consists of a single layer of carbon atoms...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Event News

Networking 4.0: International Laser Technology Congress AKL’16 Shows New Ways of Cooperations

24.05.2016 | Event News

Challenges of rural labor markets

20.05.2016 | Event News

International expert meeting “Health Business Connect” in France

19.05.2016 | Event News

Latest News

11 million Euros for research into magnetic field sensors for medical diagnostics

27.05.2016 | Awards Funding

Fungi – a promising source of chemical diversity

27.05.2016 | Life Sciences

New Model of T Cell Activation

27.05.2016 | Life Sciences

More VideoLinks >>>