The discovery of a millisecond pulsar in a triple system challenges current consensus. Thomas Tauris (Bonn) and Ed van den Heuvel (Amsterdam) have developed a semi-analytical model, which can resolve the puzzling formation of this exotic triple system.
Triple millisecond pulsar with its two white dwarf companions. According to the new model, the system survived three phases of mass transfer and a supernova explosion, remaining dynamically stable.
Through theoretical calculations on the base of stellar evolution, they have demonstrated a plausible model which brings new insight to our knowledge of stellar interactions in multiple star systems. Their study can also help explain an increasing number of observed binary millisecond pulsars which seem to require a triple system origin.
Pulsars are among the most extreme celestial bodies known. They have radii of only 10 kilometres, but at the same time a mass exceeding that of our Sun. Pulsars are formed as the remnants of violent supernova explosions of massive stars. The fastest rotating neutron stars are known as millisecond pulsars. They are thought to be strongly magnetized, old neutron stars which have been spun up to high rotational frequencies by accumulation of mass and angular momentum from a companion star in a binary system. Today we know of about 200 such pulsars with spin periods between 1.4 and 10 milliseconds. These are located in both the Galactic Disk and in Globular Clusters.
Since the first binary pulsar was detected in 1974, theoretical astrophysicists have investigated mass transfer between stars and other binary interactions in order to explain their origin. A surprising new discovery has now revealed a millisecond pulsar in a triple system with two white dwarf companions, posing a unique challenge to stellar physicists to explain its formation.
"This is a truly amazing system with three degenerate objects. It has survived three phases of mass transfer and a supernova explosion, and yet it remained dynamically stable", says Thomas Tauris, theoretical astrophysicist and first author of the present study. "Pulsars have previously been found with planets and in recent years my observational colleagues have discovered a number of peculiar binary pulsars which seem to require a triple system origin. But this new millisecond pulsar is the first to be detected with two white dwarfs".
The new triple millisecond pulsar J0337+1715 was discovered recently by a joint American-European collaboration led by Scott Ransom from National Radio Astronomy Observatory (USA). The system is located in the constellation of Taurus at a distance of about 4000 light-years. It is in the Galactic disk, and not inside a globular cluster. Therefore, its existence cannot be explained simply as a result of dynamical encounter events in a dense stellar environment. During the last 6 months, Thomas Tauris and Ed van den Heuvel have developed a semi-analytical model to explain its existence. One of the key results obtained from their investigation is that the observed parameters reflect that both white dwarfs were indeed produced in the present system.
Triple systems often become dynamically unstable during their evolution leading to expulsion of one of the three stars. A major challenge was to find a solution that remained dynamically stable throughout the entire evolution, including the stage of the supernova explosion. "An interesting result of our new investigation is that the system evolved through a common envelope stage where both white dwarf progenitor stars were dragged into the envelope of the massive star due to frictional forces, causing their orbits to shrink by a large factor, thereby enabling survival of its subsequent explosion", says Ed van den Heuvel.
"Actually, we can apply several tests of stellar evolution with this new system and also make predictions about its 3-dimensional velocity which can be measured within a few years", concludes Thomas Tauris. "This will allow us to constrain the mass of the exploding star."
This work has profited from a recent effort to bridge the Fundamental Physics in Radio Astronomy group at the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR), led by Michael Kramer, with the Stellar Physics group at the Argelander-Institut für Astronomie (AIfA) at University of Bonn, led by Norbert Langer. Michael Kramer and his colleagues are using the 100-m Effelsberg Radio Telescope to participate in several ongoing searches and discoveries of millisecond pulsars, while the stellar physicists at AIfA are modelling their formation and evolution.
Thomas Tauris has been working at the AIfA and MPIfR as a visiting research professor since 2010. Some of his recent work on the recycling of millisecond pulsars has been published jointly with Norbert Langer, Michael Kramer and other colleagues in Bonn. Together they host twice per year an international one-day workshop in Bonn, called Formation and Evolution of Neutron stars.
Formation of the Galactic Millisecond Pulsar Triple System PSR J0337+1715 - a Neutron Star with Two Orbiting White Dwarfs , T. M. Tauris & E. P. J. van den Heuvel, 2014, Astrophysical Journal Letters, scheduled for online publication on January 06, 2014.
Pulsar Discovery Paper:A millisecond pulsar in a stellar triple system, S.M. Ransom et al., 2014, Nature Online Publishing, doi:10.1038/nature12917.
Local Contact:Dr. Thomas M. Tauris
A first glimpse inside a macroscopic quantum state
27.03.2015 | ICFO-The Institute of Photonic Sciences
Magnetic quantum crystals
27.03.2015 | Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik
In an experiment at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, scientists precisely measured the temperature and structure of aluminum as...
The IPH presents a solution at HANNOVER MESSE 2015 to make ship traffic more reliable while decreasing the maintenance costs at the same time. In cooperation with project partners, the research institute from Hannover, Germany, has developed a sensor system which continuously monitors the condition of the marine gearbox, thus preventing breakdowns. Special feature: the monitoring system works wirelessly and energy-autonomously. The required electrical power is generated where it is needed – directly at the sensor.
As well as cars need to be certified regularly (in Germany by the TÜV – Technical Inspection Association), ships need to be inspected – if the powertrain stops...
When an earthquake hits, the faster first responders can get to an impacted area, the more likely infrastructure--and lives--can be saved.
The Atlantic overturning is one of Earth’s most important heat transport systems, pumping warm water northwards and cold water southwards. Also known as the Gulf Stream system, it is responsible for the mild climate in northwestern Europe.
Scientists now found evidence for a slowdown of the overturning – multiple lines of observation suggest that in recent decades, the current system has been...
Because they are regularly subjected to heavy vehicle traffic, emissions, moisture and salt, above- and underground parking garages, as well as bridges, frequently experience large areas of corrosion. Most inspection systems to date have only been capable of inspecting smaller surface areas.
From April 13 to April 17 at the Hannover Messe (hall 2, exhibit booth C16), engineers from the Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing IZFP will be...
25.03.2015 | Event News
19.03.2015 | Event News
17.03.2015 | Event News
27.03.2015 | Physics and Astronomy
26.03.2015 | Trade Fair News
26.03.2015 | Trade Fair News