Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

How the Earth survived birth

08.01.2010
New simulation presented at astronomy meeting reveals planet migration prevents plunge into sun

For the last 20 years, the best models of planet formation—or how planets grow from dust in a gas disk—have contradicted the very existence of Earth. These models assumed locally constant temperatures within a disk, and the planets plunge into the Sun.

Now, new simulations from researchers at the American Museum of Natural History and the University of Cambridge show that variations in temperature can lead to regions of outward and inward migration that safely trap planets on orbits. When the protoplanetary disk begins to dissipate, planets are left behind, safe from impact with their parent star. The results of this research are being presented this week at the 2010 meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Washington, D.C.

"We are trying to understand how planets interact with the gas disks from which they form as the disk evolves over its lifetime," says Mordecai-Mark Mac Low, Curator of Astrophysics and Division Chair of Physical Sciences at the Museum. "We show that the planetoids from which the Earth formed can survive their immersion in the gas disk without falling into the Sun."

During the birth of a star, a disk of gas and dust forms. The midplane of this dusty disk is opaque and cannot quickly cool by radiating heat to outer space. Until recently, no one has included temperature variation in models of planet formation. Co-author Sijme-Jan Paardekooper of the University of Cambridge ran groundbreaking new simulations like that most recently published online (http://arxiv.org/abs/0909.4552). His work shows that the direction of migration of low-mass planets in disks depends on the detailed temperature structure of the disk. This key insight lays the groundwork for the current work.

The American Astronomical Society presentation incorporates the results of Paardekooper's local models into the long-term evolution of the temperature and density structure of a protoplanetary disk. The result of the simulation is that, over the lifetime of a disk, planets get trapped in orbits between regions of inward and outward migration. The orbits slowly move inward as the disk dissipates. Once the gas densities drop low enough for the planets to no longer be influenced by disk, the planets are dropped into an orbit similar to the orbits of planets around the Sun. The radius of the orbit at which a planet is released depends on its mass.

"We used a one-dimensional model for this project," says co-author Wladimir Lyra, a postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Astrophysics at the Museum. "Three dimensional models are so computationally expensive that we could only follow the evolution of disks for about 100 orbits—about 1,000 years. We want to see what happens over the entire multimillion year lifetime of a disk."

Mac Low is presenting this research at the upcoming American Astronomical Society meetings in Washington, D.C. on January 6 with a press conference on the following day (January 7 at 10:30 am: "Spicing up the solar system.") A research paper is currently submitted to The Astrophysical Journal, authored by Lyra, Paardekooper, and Mac Low. This research was funded by the American Museum of Natural History, the National Science Foundation, and NASA.

Kristin Elise Phillips | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.amnh.org

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Engineering team images tiny quasicrystals as they form
18.08.2017 | Cornell University

nachricht Astrophysicists explain the mysterious behavior of cosmic rays
18.08.2017 | Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Nagoya physicists resolve long-standing mystery of structure-less transition

21.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

Chronic stress induces fatal organ dysfunctions via a new neural circuit

21.08.2017 | Health and Medicine

Scientists from the MSU studied new liquid-crystalline photochrom

21.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>