Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Earth-Based Solar Eclipse Research

12.06.2009
The July eclipse will be the 49th solar eclipse that Jay Pasachoff has viewed. A champion of using eclipse observations to study the solar atmosphere, he describes the science of eclipses in the cover story of the international journal Nature (June 11 issue). Pasachoff, who is chair of the International Astronomical Union's Working Group on Solar Eclipses, was invited to write the article as part of Nature's coverage of the International Year of Astronomy.

The July 22 total solar eclipse, visible from China and India (but not the United States), will be the longest in the 21st century. Teams of scientists from around the world will gather in China to study the corona, the sun's outermost atmosphere, for almost six minutes, unusually long for totality.

Most will be stationed at a 3,000-foot mountain site selected by Prof. Jay Pasachoff, a Caltech and Williams College astronomer and planetary scientist, in Tianhuangping, China, not far from Hangzhou or Shanghai.

The July event will be the 49th solar eclipse that Pasachoff has viewed. A champion of using eclipse observations to study the solar atmosphere, he describes the science of eclipses in the cover story of the international journal Nature (June 11 issue). Pasachoff, who is chair of the International Astronomical Union's Working Group on Solar Eclipses, was invited to write the article as part of Nature's coverage of the International Year of Astronomy.

The article describes the history of eclipse discoveries, such as the element helium and the verification of Einstein's general theory of relativity, as well as current themes in eclipse research.

One recent development in eclipse studies is the new computer capability of bringing out low-contrast features. One such spectacular image, involving processing by Miloslav Druckmüller of the Brno Institute of Technology in the Czech Republic, was selected by Nature for its cover.

The detailed structure of the corona is caused by the sun's magnetic field. Pasachoff's work with Druckmüller and with Vojtech Rusin and Metod Saniga of the solar observatory in Slovakia has led to several joint papers in the Astrophysical Journal on views of the changing corona. The corona changes not only from year to year with the sunspot cycle but also even within minutes, as the scientists saw by comparing their observations from Siberia and Mongolia at the last solar eclipse on Aug. 1, 2008. They plan to extend that work this summer with observations from India, China, and islands in the Pacific.

Pasachoff's team in China includes Bryce Babcock, staff physicist at Williams and several undergraduate students from Williams, where Pasachoff is Field Memorial Professor of Astronomy. He chose the site on a visit over two years ago to southern China together with Naomi Pasachoff, a research associate at Williams, and Beijing scientists Yihua Yan and Jin Zhu.

Pasachoff and his colleagues have been studying, in particular, why the solar corona has a temperature of millions of degrees, much hotter than the sun's surface. They do so by using a special rapid-readout electronic camera and single-color filters chosen to show only coronal gas. They look for oscillations with periods in the range of one second, which would signify certain classes of magnetic waves. The detailed structure of the corona, revealed by imaging in the visible and x-ray regions of the spectrum, and the correspondence of bright coronal regions with sunspot groups, shows that magnetism is the cause of coronal heating and the coronal structure. A competing set of ideas of how the corona is heated to millions of degrees involves ubiquitous nanoflares, that is, relatively tiny solar flares going off all the time.

Studies of eclipses, transits of Mercury and Venus across the face of the sun, and occultations of Pluto and other objects in the outer solar system proceed in tandem. For his eclipse studies, Pasachoff uses a set of electronic cameras provided by NASA's Planetary Sciences Division, primarily for use in studying Pluto and other objects in the outer solar system. His studies of Pluto's atmosphere started with similar cameras that had been provided for eclipse work.

Pasachoff's research this summer, as much of his work in the past, is supported mainly by a grant from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society.

References:

International Astronomical Union's Working Group on Solar Eclipses: http://www.eclipses.info

Williams College eclipse expeditions:
www.williams.edu/astronomy/eclipse
Pasachoff's books and other publications:
http:// www.solarcorona.com

Jay M. Pasachoff | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.eclipses.info
http://www.williams.edu/astronomy/eclipse

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht One-way roads for spin currents
23.05.2018 | Singapore University of Technology and Design

nachricht Tunable diamond string may hold key to quantum memory
23.05.2018 | Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: LZH showcases laser material processing of tomorrow at the LASYS 2018

At the LASYS 2018, from June 5th to 7th, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) will be showcasing processes for the laser material processing of tomorrow in hall 4 at stand 4E75. With blown bomb shells the LZH will present first results of a research project on civil security.

At this year's LASYS, the LZH will exhibit light-based processes such as cutting, welding, ablation and structuring as well as additive manufacturing for...

Im Focus: Self-illuminating pixels for a new display generation

There are videos on the internet that can make one marvel at technology. For example, a smartphone is casually bent around the arm or a thin-film display is rolled in all directions and with almost every diameter. From the user's point of view, this looks fantastic. From a professional point of view, however, the question arises: Is that already possible?

At Display Week 2018, scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP will be demonstrating today’s technological possibilities and...

Im Focus: Explanation for puzzling quantum oscillations has been found

So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics

Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...

Im Focus: Dozens of binaries from Milky Way's globular clusters could be detectable by LISA

Next-generation gravitational wave detector in space will complement LIGO on Earth

The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. A...

Im Focus: Entangled atoms shine in unison

A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. This fundamental demonstration could lead to the development of highly sensitive optical gradiometers for the precise measurement of the gravitational field or the earth's magnetic field.

The age of quantum technology has long been heralded. Decades of research into the quantum world have led to the development of methods that make it possible...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Save the date: Forum European Neuroscience – 07-11 July 2018 in Berlin, Germany

02.05.2018 | Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

Unique scope of UV LED technologies and applications presented in Berlin: ICULTA-2018

12.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Research reveals how order first appears in liquid crystals

23.05.2018 | Life Sciences

Space-like gravity weakens biochemical signals in muscle formation

23.05.2018 | Life Sciences

NIST puts the optical microscope under the microscope to achieve atomic accuracy

23.05.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>