Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Determine chemical composition of a type of red giant star with more carbon than oxygen

14.01.2010
Researchers of the University of Granada have conducted the most complete worldwide analysis of the chemical composition and evolutionary state of a spectral type R carbon star
The presence of carbon is essential for the possible development of life in the Universe, and therefore explaining its origin is of vital importance

What are the peculiar type-R stars made? Where does the carbon present in their shell come from? These are the questions to be solved by a research work conducted by scientists of the department of Theoretical and Cosmos Physics of the University of Granada (Spain), where they have analysed the chemical composition and the evolutionary state of spectral type R carbon stars to try to explain the origin of the carbon enrichment present in its atmosphere.

Up to now, there had hardly been performed chemical analysis for this type of start. Type-R stars are peculiar red giant stars, as they show a higher presence of carbon than oxygen in their atmosphere (the usual composition in the Universe is exactly the opposite). They can be classified in hot-R starts and cold-R stars, depending on their effective temperature.

In the case of R-cold stars, this is the first chemical analysis of these characteristics carried out worldwide, whereas for R-hot stars, the existing chemical analyses were very old (more than 25 years) and with a lower spectral resolution than that of the UGR study.

The research has been conducted by Olga Zamora Sánchez and supervised by professors Carlos Abia and Inmaculada Domínguez. The scientists of the University of Granada have also studied the essential observational features of type-R stars (distribution in the Milky Way, kinematics, luminosity, etc.) .

A 23-star sample
This research work has determined the chemical composition of a 23 type-R star sample (both hot and cold), using spectrums in the optics with high-spectral resolution, in order to obtain information about the origin of this type of stars. To this end, the scientists performed observations with a 2.2-metre in diameter telescope placed in Calar Alto (Almeria), and carried out a chemical analysis of elements such as carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, lithium and other heavy metals, such as technetium, strontium, barium or lanthanum.

Thus, the scientists have concluded that R-cold stars are identical to type-N stars (or normal carbon stars) originated in the AGB phase, whereas R-hot stars are different. About 40% of the R-hot stars of the sample were erroneously classified up now, and therefore the portion of these stars with regard to red giant stars could be considerably reduced regarding previous estimations thanks to this work.

The most comprehensive analysis
The analysis of the University of Granada is the most complete conducted worldwide up to now (from an observational and theoretical approach) about type-R spectral stars. Besides, the scientists have carried out a numeric simulation for the first time of the most favourable scene for the formation of a R-hot star: the fusion of a helium white dwarf with a red giant. In the end, this scene has turned out to be unviable, and therefore the explanation of the origin of R-hot stars keeps representing a challenge for present star and nucleosynthesis development models.

Although the UGR scientists warn that this type of study has not immediate applications, the information obtained could be very valuable in the future as carbon, as everybody knows, is very important for the possible development of life in the Universe. Therefore, they say, explaining the origin of this element in the stars will be useful to study the production of one of the basic ingredients of life that we know.

The results of this research work will be sent for its publication in the near future in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics.

Reference: Olga Zamora Sánchez. Department of Theoretical and Cosmos Physics of the University of Granada. Telephone number: 958249062. E-mail: zamora@ugr.es

Olga Zamora Sánchez | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.ugr.es

Further reports about: Cosmos Milky Way Physic R-cold UGR carbon stars chemical composition giant stars red giant stars

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht DGIST develops 20 times faster biosensor
24.04.2017 | DGIST (Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology)

nachricht New quantum liquid crystals may play role in future of computers
21.04.2017 | California Institute of Technology

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

7th International Conference on Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics in Freiburg on April 3-5, 2017

03.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Early organic carbon got deep burial in mantle

25.04.2017 | Earth Sciences

A room with a view - or how cultural differences matter in room size perception

25.04.2017 | Life Sciences

Warm winds: New insight into what weakens Antarctic ice shelves

25.04.2017 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>