Almost 200 years ago, Bavarian physicist Joseph von Fraunhofer discovered dark lines in the sun’s spectrum. It was later discovered that these spectral lines can be used to infer the chemical composition and temperature of the sun’s atmosphere. Today we are able to gain information about diverse objects through light measurements in a similar way.
As a ‘quantum pendulum’ the ions swing in both directions at the same time.
Because often very little light needs to be detected for this, physicists are looking for ever more sensitive spectroscopy methods. In extreme cases, also single particles of light (photons) need to be measured reliably, which is technically challenging.
Thus, physicists at the Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (IQOQI) at the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Institute for Experimental Physics of the University of Innsbruck take a detour via the technique of quantum logic spectroscopy. It was developed some years ago by the group of Nobel laureate David Wineland to build extremely precise atomic clocks. This is one of the first practical applications of quantum information processing and, in the next few years, may lead to a redefinition of the second in the international system of units.
In the experiment a laser pulse excites the particles and entangles the electronic state of the logic ion with the vibration of the particles. “In this configuration, also called Schrödinger cat state, the ions swing like a classical pendulum in a trap. But as a ‘quantum pendulum’ they swing in both directions at the same time,” describes Hempel the central part of the experiment. “We then excite the ion we want to investigate by applying different laser frequencies. At a certain frequency the ion emits a single photon and receives a minimal momentum kick, which causes the vibrational components to be slightly displaced. This can be observed through the electronic state of the logic ion. Combined with this information, the frequency of the laser then allows us to gain information about the internal state of the spectroscopy ion.” In the current experiment the scientists detected single photons with a probability of 12 %. “We, thus, prove that this technique works in principal. With a technically optimized set-up we will be able to considerably increase the sensitivity,” say Roos and Hempel confidently.Universal application
This research, carried out at the Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and at the Institute for Experimental Physics at Innsbruck University, was supported by the European Union.
Publication: Entanglement-enhanced detection of single-photon scattering events. C. Hempel, B. P. Lanyon, P. Jurcevic, R. Gerritsma, R. Blatt, C. F. Roos. Advance online publication. Nature Photonics 2013 DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2013.172
Magnetic field traces gas and dust swirling around supermassive black hole
22.02.2018 | Royal Astronomical Society
UMass Amherst physicists contribute to dark matter detector success
22.02.2018 | University of Massachusetts at Amherst
Quantum computers may one day solve algorithmic problems which even the biggest supercomputers today can’t manage. But how do you test a quantum computer to...
For the first time, a team of researchers at the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, has succeeded in making an integrated circuit (IC) from just a monolayer of a semiconducting polymer via a bottom-up, self-assembly approach.
In the self-assembly process, the semiconducting polymer arranges itself into an ordered monolayer in a transistor. The transistors are binary switches used...
Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale
Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...
For photographers and scientists, lenses are lifesavers. They reflect and refract light, making possible the imaging systems that drive discovery through the microscope and preserve history through cameras.
But today's glass-based lenses are bulky and resist miniaturization. Next-generation technologies, such as ultrathin cameras or tiny microscopes, require...
Scientists from the University of Zurich have succeeded for the first time in tracking individual stem cells and their neuronal progeny over months within the intact adult brain. This study sheds light on how new neurons are produced throughout life.
The generation of new nerve cells was once thought to taper off at the end of embryonic development. However, recent research has shown that the adult brain...
15.02.2018 | Event News
13.02.2018 | Event News
12.02.2018 | Event News
22.02.2018 | Life Sciences
22.02.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
22.02.2018 | Earth Sciences