Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Detection of single photons via quantum entanglement

08.07.2013
A team of quantum physicists in Innsbruck led by Christian Roos and Cornelius Hempel have realised an extremely sensitive method for the spectroscopy of atomic and molecular atoms. This technique can be used to closely study a number of particles. The scientists have published their findings in the journal Nature Photonics.

Almost 200 years ago, Bavarian physicist Joseph von Fraunhofer discovered dark lines in the sun’s spectrum. It was later discovered that these spectral lines can be used to infer the chemical composition and temperature of the sun’s atmosphere. Today we are able to gain information about diverse objects through light measurements in a similar way.


As a ‘quantum pendulum’ the ions swing in both directions at the same time.
Illustration: IQOQI/Knabl

Because often very little light needs to be detected for this, physicists are looking for ever more sensitive spectroscopy methods. In extreme cases, also single particles of light (photons) need to be measured reliably, which is technically challenging.

Thus, physicists at the Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (IQOQI) at the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Institute for Experimental Physics of the University of Innsbruck take a detour via the technique of quantum logic spectroscopy. It was developed some years ago by the group of Nobel laureate David Wineland to build extremely precise atomic clocks. This is one of the first practical applications of quantum information processing and, in the next few years, may lead to a redefinition of the second in the international system of units.

Measurement via entanglement
Christian Roos’ and Cornelius Hempel’s team of physicists in Innsbruck isolated single ions in an ion trap to study them under controlled conditions. “We do not try to detect the photon that is emitted or absorbed by an ion, but rather the momentum kick the ion receives upon absorption or emission,” explains Cornelius Hempel. “While this effect is extremely small, we can detect it by means of quantum physics.” The physicists use an additional ‘logic’ ion, on which the measurement is performed. “This calcium ion (40Ca+) can be controlled very well in the experiment,” says Hempel. As spectroscopy ion the researchers use another isotope of calcium (44Ca+).

In the experiment a laser pulse excites the particles and entangles the electronic state of the logic ion with the vibration of the particles. “In this configuration, also called Schrödinger cat state, the ions swing like a classical pendulum in a trap. But as a ‘quantum pendulum’ they swing in both directions at the same time,” describes Hempel the central part of the experiment. “We then excite the ion we want to investigate by applying different laser frequencies. At a certain frequency the ion emits a single photon and receives a minimal momentum kick, which causes the vibrational components to be slightly displaced. This can be observed through the electronic state of the logic ion. Combined with this information, the frequency of the laser then allows us to gain information about the internal state of the spectroscopy ion.” In the current experiment the scientists detected single photons with a probability of 12 %. “We, thus, prove that this technique works in principal. With a technically optimized set-up we will be able to considerably increase the sensitivity,” say Roos and Hempel confidently.

Universal application
“By using the exotic concept of quantum mechanical entanglement we are able to gain practical knowledge about single particles,” says Christian Roos excitedly. “Since our method of measurement does not depend that much on the wave length of the detected photon, it may be used for various purposes,” adds Cornelius Hempel. For example, energy levels of different atoms and molecules could be investigated by using this technique. Because it is difficult to control molecules in an experiment, this method is an enormous progress for studying more complex structures.

This research, carried out at the Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and at the Institute for Experimental Physics at Innsbruck University, was supported by the European Union.

Publication: Entanglement-enhanced detection of single-photon scattering events. C. Hempel, B. P. Lanyon, P. Jurcevic, R. Gerritsma, R. Blatt, C. F. Roos. Advance online publication. Nature Photonics 2013 DOI: 10.1038/nphoton.2013.172

Illustration: http://iqoqi.at/de/medien/press-photos

Contact:
Dipl.-Phys. Cornelius Hempel, MSc
Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information
of the Austrian Academy of Sciences
and
Institute for Experimental Physics
University of Innsbruck
Phone: +43 512 507 4722
Email: cornelius.hempel@uibk.ac.at
Web: http://www.quantumoptics.at/
Christian Flatz, PhD
Public Relations
Phone: +43 676 872532022
Email: pr-iqoqi@oeaw.ac.at
Weitere Informationen:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2013.172 - Entanglement-enhanced detection of single-photon scattering events. C. Hempel, B. P. Lanyon, P. Jurcevic, R. Gerritsma, R. Blatt, C. F. Roos. Advance online publication. Nature Photonics 2013

Dr. Christian Flatz | Universität Innsbruck
Further information:
http://www.quantumoptics.at/
http://www.uibk.ac.at

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht New NASA study improves search for habitable worlds
20.10.2017 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

nachricht Physics boosts artificial intelligence methods
19.10.2017 | California Institute of Technology

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

NRL clarifies valley polarization for electronic and optoelectronic technologies

20.10.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research

Metallic nanoparticles will help to determine the percentage of volatile compounds

20.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

Shallow soils promote savannas in South America

20.10.2017 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>