Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Dartmouth-led black hole hunters tackle a cosmic conundrum

21.04.2015

Dartmouth astrophysicists and their colleagues have not only proven that a supermassive black hole exists in a place where it isn't supposed to be, but in doing so have opened a new door to what things were like in the early universe.

Henize 2-10 is a small irregular galaxy that is not too far away in astronomical terms -- 30 million light-years. "This is a dwarf starburst galaxy -- a small galaxy with regions of very rapid star formation -- about 10 percent of the size of our own Milky Way," says co-author Ryan Hickox, an assistant professor in Dartmouth's Department of Physics and Astronomy. "If you look at it, it's a blob, but it surprisingly harbors a central black hole."


A Hubble Space Telescope image shows the Henize 2-10 galaxy, with a hidden supermassive black hole at its center.

Credit: NASA

Hickox says there may be similar small galaxies in the known universe, but this is one of the only ones close enough to allow detailed study. Lead author Thomas Whalen, Hickox and a team of other researchers have now analyzed a series of four X-ray observations of Henize 2-10 using three space telescopes over 13 years, providing conclusive evidence for the existence of a black hole.

Their findings appear as an online preprint to be published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters. A PDF also is available on request.

Suspicions about Henize 2-10 first arose in 2011 when another team, that included some of the co-authors, first looked at galaxy Henize 2-10 and tried to explain its behavior. The observed dual emissions of X-ray and radio waves, often associated with a black hole, gave credence to the presence of one. The instruments utilized were Japan's Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (1997), the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton (2004, 2011) and NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory (2001).

"The galaxy was bright in 2001, but it has gotten less bright over time," says Hickox. "This is not consistent with being powered only by star formation processes, so it almost certainly had to have a small supermassive black hole -- small compared to the largest supermassive black holes in massive elliptical galaxies, but is still a million times the mass of the sun."

A characteristic of supermassive black holes is that they do change with time -- not a huge amount, explains Hickox, "and that is exactly what Tom Whalen found," he says. "This variability definitely tells us that the emission is coming from a compact source at the center of this system, consistent with it being a supermassive black hole."

While supermassive black holes are typically found in the central bulges of galaxies, Henize 2-10 has no bulge. "All the associations that people have made between galaxies and black holes tell us there ought to be no black hole in this system," says Whalen, but the team has proven otherwise. Whalen, a recent Dartmouth graduate, is now a member of the Chandra X-ray Center team at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.

A big question is where black holes come from. "When people try to simulate where the galaxies come from, you have to put in these black holes at the beginning, but we don't really know what the conditions were. These dwarf starburst galaxies are the closest analogs we have in the universe around us now, to the first galaxies early in the universe," says Whalen.

The authors conclude: "Our results confirm that nearby star-forming galaxies can indeed form massive black holes and that by implication so can their primordial counterparts."

"Studying those to get some sense of what might have happened very early in the universe is very powerful," says Hickox.

###

Available to comment are Dartmouth Assistant Professor Ryan Hickox at Ryan.C.Hickox@dartmouth.edu and Thomas Whalen at twhalen@cfa.harvard.edu.

Broadcast studios: Dartmouth has TV and radio studios available for interviews. For more information, visit: http://www.dartmouth.edu/~opa/radio-tv-studios/

Media Contact

John Cramer
john.cramer@dartmouth.edu
603-646-9130

 @dartmouth

http://www.dartmouth.edu 

John Cramer | EurekAlert!

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht SwRI-led team discovers lull in Mars' giant impact history
26.04.2017 | Southwest Research Institute

nachricht New survey hints at exotic origin for the Cold Spot
26.04.2017 | Royal Astronomical Society

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

7th International Conference on Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics in Freiburg on April 3-5, 2017

03.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Scientist invents way to trigger artificial photosynthesis to clean air

26.04.2017 | Materials Sciences

Ammonium nitrogen input increases the synthesis of anticarcinogenic compounds in broccoli

26.04.2017 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

SwRI-led team discovers lull in Mars' giant impact history

26.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>