Unlike the planets in our solar system, two of the newly discovered planets are orbiting in the opposite direction to the rotation of their host star. This, along with a recent study of other exoplanets, upsets the primary theory of how planets are formed. There is a preponderance of these planets with their orbital spin going opposite to that of their parent star. They are called exoplanets because they are located outside of our solar system.
These and other related discoveries are being presented at the UK National Astronomy Meeting in Glasgow, Scotland, this week. This is the first public mention of the new planets and the research will be described in upcoming scientific journal articles.
"Planet evolution theorists now have to explain how so many planets came to be orbiting like this," said Tim Lister, a project scientist at LCOGT. Lister leads a major part of the observational campaigns along with Rachel Street of LCOGT, Andrew Cameron of the University of St. Andrews in Scotland, and Didier Queloz, of the Geneva Observatory in Switzerland.
Data from LCOGT was instrumental in confirming the new planet discoveries. By adding these nine new "transiting" planets, the number of known transiting planets has grown from 71 to 80. A transit occurs when a celestial body passes in front of its host star and blocks some of the star's light. This type of eclipse causes a small drop in the apparent brightness of the star and enables the planet's mass, diameter, density, and temperature to be deduced.
After the initial detection of the new exoplanets by the Wide Angle Search for Planets (WASP), the team of astronomers combined data from LCOGT's 2.0-meter Faulkes Telescopes in Hawaii and Australia with follow-up from other telescopes to confirm the discoveries and characterize the planets.The planets are revolving around nearby stars within 1,000 light years of our galaxy. Their stars are located in the constellations Pegasus, Virgo, Pisces, and Andromeda in the northern hemisphere, and Eridanus, Hydra, Cetus, and Phoenix in the southern hemisphere.
The cores of giant planets are thought to form from a mix of rock and ice particles found only in the cold outer reaches of planetary systems. Hot Jupiters, therefore, must form far from their star and subsequently migrate inwards over the course of a few million years. Many astronomers believed this could happen due to gravitational interactions with the disk of dust from which they formed, which might have also subsequently formed Earth-like rocky planets. However, these new results suggest that this may not be the whole story, because it does not explain how planets end up orbiting in a direction contrary that of the disk.
According to the research team, the best alternative migration theory suggests that the proximity of Hot Jupiters to their stars is not due to interactions with the dust disk at all, but to a slower evolution involving a gravitational tug-of-war with more distant planetary or stellar companions over hundreds of millions of years. Bounced onto a tilted and elongated orbit, a wandering gas giant would suffer tidal friction every time it swung close to the star, eventually becoming parked in a near circular, but randomly tilted orbit close to the star. "In this scenario, smaller planets in orbits similar to Earth's are unlikely to survive," said Rachel Street.
Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network is a non-profit organization dedicated to building a worldwide network of robotically controlled telescopes, which will enable astronomers to observe 24 hours a day, from both hemispheres. Currently, LCOGT operates two 2.0-meter telescopes: Faulkes North in Maui, Hawaii, and Faulkes South in New South Wales, Australia. LCOGT also has a telescope in Sedgwick Reserve, a nature reserve in Central California funded and managed by UC and UCSB. Over the course of the next few years, an armada of telescopes will be commissioned, distributed over six sites in both hemispheres of the globe, all controlled from LCOGT's headquarters in Goleta, Calif. These new facilities will be one of the largest networks of telescopes in the world, and will be an unprecedented tool for exploring the dynamic nature of a range of astrophysical phenomena. LCOGT's flexible approach to scheduling means the network provides responsive and highly efficient follow-up for large-scale surveys such as WASP. LCOGT is affiliated with neighboring UC Santa Barbara.
Gail Gallessich | EurekAlert!
Studying fundamental particles in materials
17.01.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Struktur und Dynamik der Materie
Seeing the quantum future... literally
16.01.2017 | University of Sydney
Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.
While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...
Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales
Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...
Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.
As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...
At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).
Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...
Many pathogens use certain sugar compounds from their host to help conceal themselves against the immune system. Scientists at the University of Bonn have now, in cooperation with researchers at the University of York in the United Kingdom, analyzed the dynamics of a bacterial molecule that is involved in this process. They demonstrate that the protein grabs onto the sugar molecule with a Pac Man-like chewing motion and holds it until it can be used. Their results could help design therapeutics that could make the protein poorer at grabbing and holding and hence compromise the pathogen in the host. The study has now been published in “Biophysical Journal”.
The cells of the mouth, nose and intestinal mucosa produce large quantities of a chemical called sialic acid. Many bacteria possess a special transport system...
10.01.2017 | Event News
09.01.2017 | Event News
05.01.2017 | Event News
17.01.2017 | Earth Sciences
17.01.2017 | Materials Sciences
17.01.2017 | Architecture and Construction