Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

What happens when a stone impacts on water

28.01.2009
Researchers at the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), the University of Twente in the Netherlands and the University of Seville in Spain have explained the formation and behaviour of the very fast water jet that is formed when an object impacts on a water surface.

They have observed precisely what happens using a super-fast camera and have made a computer simulation of the process. This shows how the jet is forced upwards, layer by layer, by the surrounding water pressure. The simulation corresponds very closely with observations.

They have also formulated a theoretical model based on this that explains the extremely high speed of the water jet. The researchers are publishing their findings in the renowned journal, Physical Review Letters. These results are not only of academic significance as jets on the impact of an object on a liquid are frequent occurrences in nature and industry.

If one drops a stone into a pond, a very rapid, thin jet of water spouts upwards. This is an everyday phenomenon that occurs frequently in nature and industry. However, the rich and complex dynamics underlying such a system are only revealed if viewed using a high-speed camera. The latter shows how the downward movement of the object is converted into the upward movement of the jet.

A cavity forms behind the object during impact on the water surface. This cavity is subsequently compressed by hydrostatic pressure, which leads to the formation of the jet. In their experiments, FOM PhD candidate Stephan Gekle, José Manuel Gordillo of the University of Seville and Devaraj van der Meer and Detlef Lohse of the University of Twente demonstrate how the wall of the cavity forces the jet upward as it implodes, just like toothpaste being squeezed out of a tube, but many times faster, of course. Incidentally, a jet which is forced downward, deeper into the liquid, is also created at the same time. This second jet is not visible on the surface.

In order to examine the dynamics of the impact in a highly controlled manner, the researchers draw a circular disc through the water surface using a linear motor with a constant speed. Subsequently a high-speed camera is used to take images with a speed of up to 30,000 frames per second.

The formation and constriction of the cavity and the formation of the jet can thus be followed in detail. A computer simulation of the process – which corresponds very closely to the experiment – enables the researchers to study the resulting flow profile. It appears that the jet is forced upward, layer by layer, by the imploding wall. The researchers have formulated a theoretical model to explain the enormous speed of the water jet on the basis of this observation.

Wiebe van der Veen | alfa
Further information:
http://www.utwente.nl/en

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht A 100-year-old physics problem has been solved at EPFL
23.06.2017 | Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

nachricht Quantum thermometer or optical refrigerator?
23.06.2017 | National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Quantum thermometer or optical refrigerator?

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A 100-year-old physics problem has been solved at EPFL

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Equipping form with function

23.06.2017 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>