UWM team the first to “see” atomic changes in proteins with record resolution
A research team led by physicists at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (UWM) has proven a method that makes it possible to find the atomic structure of proteins in action by producing “snapshots” of them with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution.
What made it possible were the ultra-short X-ray pulses of a Free Electron Laser (XFEL).
Physics professor Marius Schmidt and doctoral student Jason Tenboer recently completed the experiment with the XFEL at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California.
It confirms that the XFEL imaging method, called time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography (TR-SFX), can unmask protein structures that have never been seen before, determine what each protein does and reveal how they work together to carry out nearly every function in a living organism.
The experiment also involved researchers from Arizona State University, SUNY Buffalo, University of Chicago, Imperial College London, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, and the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY). Results are published today in the journal Science.
Structure equals function
The successful test of the method they used has opened the door to discovering what Schmidt calls “some of the grand challenges of biology.” Proteins are behind almost everything that happens in a living organism, and they play a pivotal role not only in human health, but also in issues as diverse as food, drug discovery and energy.
“We want to understand the molecular basis of life,” he says.
But advances are only possible if scientists know what each protein does. For that, they have to know the structure – the arrangements of the atoms in each and how they change when proteins work together.
“We could observe reactions in certain proteins before,” says Schmidt, “but our new results show that we can now investigate reactions in almost all proteins.”
X-ray crystallography is the method of choice to image proteins with near atomic resolution: X-rays are shot at a protein crystal and diffract off in many directions, creating a pattern of dots the way a single shake of a paintbrush will spray splotches of paint on a wall. The pattern is a kind of fingerprint for that protein.
The millions of data points can be mathematically reconstructed to form a three-dimensional image of the atomic structure at a single point in time.
Using the XFEL as the light source, this kind of imaging is improved from previous equipment.
Change in an instant
Schmidt and Tenboer employed a “pump and probe” experiment, first inducing a chemical reaction in a protein crystal the size of a bacterium using an optical laser to get the atoms moving. Immediately afterward, the X-rays bombarded the crystal, forming the diffraction patterns.
One experiment is over in less time than it takes to blink, but in that span, protein changes can be documented.
From this data, the researchers obtained high-resolution “maps” of time-resolved differences in the electron density, the cloud of electrons in molecules that shifts around during a reaction.
With the XFEL at their X-ray source, Schmidt and Tenboer have overcome limitations with previous methods to follow these shifts.
The XFEL’s ultra-quick X-ray pulses makes it possible to collect imaging data during a very short time span – nearly instantaneous – and record the change that occurred in the structure as proteins perform their function.
“Biology happens at inconceivably short time spans,” says Tenboer. “So the XFEL at Stanford allows us to do time-resolved studies of proteins in action down to the femtosecond time scale – that’s 10 -15 of a second. The blink of an eye probably happens on a millisecond time scale; so you’re still talking about twelve orders of magnitude faster.”
Also, because the XFEL is a billion times brighter than any existing equipment, scientists can use much smaller crystals, even those at nanoscale, which are easier to form. Laser light used to start a reaction in these very small crystals can penetrate fully through the entire crystal and uniformly initiate a reaction in them.
Both the incredible pulse speed of the XFEL and the strength of the reaction initiated by the optical laser boosted the signal, revealing finer detail.
“This is essential to show unambiguously the structural changes,” Schmidt says.
The next step for the research group is to perform a faster “pump and probe” experiment. With an X-ray pulse of 40 femtoseconds, they hope to see step-by-step changes in the resulting images and evidence of the very first elementary steps that lead to the function of these proteins.
UWM and the majority of the experimental team on this work is involved in a Science and Technology Center (STC) called “BioXFEL.” Its mission is to use the XFEL to watch biomolecular machines at work, understand how these molecular machines support life, and provide training and new tools to the scientific community. Funded by the National Science Foundation, the STC is led by SUNY Buffalo and includes Arizona State University, Cornell University, Rice University, Stanford University and the University of California at Davis and at San Francisco.
Laura Hunt | newswise
NASA's James Webb Space Telescope completes final cryogenic testing
21.11.2017 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
Previous evidence of water on mars now identified as grainflows
21.11.2017 | US Geological Survey
The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.
Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....
The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...
Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.
That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...
Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.
During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....
The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.
Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...
15.11.2017 | Event News
15.11.2017 | Event News
30.10.2017 | Event News
21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
21.11.2017 | Life Sciences