Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

The 15-Minute Genome 2009 Industrial Physics Forum features faster, cheaper genome sequencing

29.07.2009
In the race for faster, cheaper ways to read human genomes, Pacific Biosciences is hoping to set a new benchmark with technology that watches DNA being copied in real time. The device is being developed to sequence DNA at speeds 20,000 times faster than second-generation sequencers currently on the market and will ultimately have a price tag of $100 per genome.

Chief Technology Officer Stephen Turner of Pacific Biosciences will discuss Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing, due to be released commercially in 2010, at the 2009 Industrial Physics Forum, a component of the 51st Annual Meeting of American Association of Physicists in Medicine, which takes place from July 26 - 30 in Anaheim, California

A decade ago, it took Celera Genomics and the Human Genome Project years to sequence complete human genomes. In 2008, James Watson's entire genetic code was read by a new generation of technology in months. SMRT sequencing aims to eventually accomplish the same feat in minutes.

The method used in the Human Genome Project, Sanger sequencing, taps into the cell's natural machinery for replicating DNA. The enzyme DNA polymerase is used to copy strands of DNA, creating billions of fragments of varying length. Each fragment -- a chain of building blocks called nucleotides -- ends with a tiny fluorescent molecule that identifies only the last nucleotide in the chain. By lining these fragments up according to length, their glowing tips can be read off like letters on a page.

Instead of inspecting DNA copies after polymerase has done its work, SMRT sequencing watches the enzyme in real time as it races along and copies an individual strand stuck to the bottom of a tiny well. Every nucleotide used to make the copy is attached to its own fluorescent molecule that lights up when the nucleotide is incorporated. This light is spotted by a detector that identifies the color and the nucleotide -- A, C, G, or T.

By repeating this process simultaneously in many wells, the technology hopes to bring about a substantial boost in sequencing speed. "When we reach a million separate molecules that we're able to sequence at once … we'll be able to sequence the entire human genome in less than 15 minutes," said Turner.

The speed of the reaction is currently limited by the ability of the detector to keep up with the polymerase. The first commercial instrument will operate at three to five bases per second, and Turner reports that lab tests have achieved 10 bases per second. The polymerase has the potential to go much faster, up to hundreds of bases per second. "To push past 50 bases per second, we will need brighter fluorescent reporters or more sensitive detection," says Turner.

The device also has the potential to reduce the number of errors made in DNA sequencing. Current technologies achieve an accuracy of 99.9999 percent (three thousand errors in a genome of three billion base pairs). "For cancer, you need to be able to spot a single mutation in the genome," said Turner. Because the errors made by SMRT sequencing are random -- not systematically occurring at the same spot -- they are more likely to disappear as the procedure is repeated.

RELATED LINKS

Main Meeting Web site: http://www.aapm.org/meetings/09AM/
Search Meeting Abstracts: http://www.aapm.org/meetings/09AM/prsearch.asp?mid=42
Meeting program: http://www.aapm.org/meetings/09AM/MeetingProgram.asp
AAPM home page: http://www.aapm.org
Background article about how medical physics has revolutionized medicine: http://www.newswise.com/articles/view/538208/

ABOUT THE 2009 INDUSTRIAL PHYSICS FORUM

For each of the past 51 years, the Industrial Physics Forum has brought together industry, academic, and government leaders to examine applications of scientific research to emerging industrial R&D activities. This year's IPF is themed, "Frontiers in Quantitative Imaging for Cancer Detection and Treatment" and will be held in conjunction with the 51st Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) on July 26 - 30, 2009 in Anaheim, CA. Embedded into the AAPM Scientific Program, the IPF sessions will be on Monday and Tuesday, July 27 - 28. During each IPF, a special session is dedicated to Frontiers in Physics, addressing the most exciting research going on today, regardless of field. In Anaheim, there will be speakers on next-generation DNA sequencers, on opto-genetics for brain imaging, and on how accelerator and particle physics enable some of the latest medical applications.

ABOUT MEDICAL PHYSICISTS

If you ever had a mammogram, ultrasound, X-ray, MRI, PET scan, or known someone treated for cancer, chances are reasonable that a medical physicist was working behind the scenes to make sure the imaging procedure was as effective as possible. Medical physicists help to develop new imaging techniques, improve existing ones, and assure the safety of radiation used in medical procedures in radiology, radiation oncology and nuclear medicine. They collaborate with radiation oncologists to design cancer treatment plans. They provide routine quality assurance and quality control on radiation equipment and procedures to ensure that cancer patients receive the prescribed dose of radiation to the correct location. They also contribute to the development of physics intensive therapeutic techniques, such as the stereotactic radiosurgery and prostate seed implants for cancer to name a few. The annual AAPM meeting is a great resource, providing guidance to physicists to implement the latest and greatest technology in a community hospital close to you.

ABOUT AAPM

The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is a scientific, educational, and professional organization of more than 6,000 medical physicists. Headquarters are located at the American Center for Physics in College Park, MD. Publications include a scientific journal (Medical Physics), technical reports, and symposium proceedings. See: www.aapm.org.

Devin Powell | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.aip.org

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Astronomers find unexpected, dust-obscured star formation in distant galaxy
24.03.2017 | University of Massachusetts at Amherst

nachricht Gravitational wave kicks monster black hole out of galactic core
24.03.2017 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

Im Focus: Researchers Imitate Molecular Crowding in Cells

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Northern oceans pumped CO2 into the atmosphere

27.03.2017 | Earth Sciences

Fingerprint' technique spots frog populations at risk from pollution

27.03.2017 | Life Sciences

Big data approach to predict protein structure

27.03.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>