How large does a group of particles have to be to render moot its exact number of particles?
In experiments using ultracold atoms, Heidelberg physicists succeeded in observing the transition to a many-body system well described by an infinite number of particles. In philosophy, this problem is known as the sorites paradox. The essential question is when a collection of elements forms a "heap".
The experiments were conducted by researchers of Heidelberg University under the direction of Prof. Dr. Selim Jochim at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics. The results of the research were published in "Science".
"Systems comprising many particles are generally extremely difficult to describe in a microscopically exact way. Hence researchers tend to work with effective theories that look not at the individual particles, such as gas molecules in the air, but at macroscopic values such as pressure or temperature," explains Jochim. The Heidelberg researchers prepared the systems so small they could still be described microscopically. Starting with a single atom, the scientists increased the number of particles one by one.
The energy of the entire system was measured with each added particle. The experiments ultimately showed that for the system under study very few atoms were needed to apply the theory derived for an infinitely large system. "We can identify this as the direct transition from a few-body system into a many-body system. Simply put, in our system it takes only about four atoms to form a 'heap' in the sense of the sorites paradox," continues the Heidelberg physicist.
Two years ago Jochim's team was able to reproducibly control the system used for the current experiments in all of its properties, including the exact number of particles, their state of motion and their interaction. "To date we are the only research team in the world able to prepare such systems," Prof. Jochim points out. "For the first time, these results realise our vision to gain a much deeper insight into the nature of fundamental few-body systems by these experiments.
Marietta Fuhrmann-Koch | idw
NASA laser communications to provide Orion faster connections
30.03.2017 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
Pinball at the atomic level
30.03.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Struktur und Dynamik der Materie
The Institute of Semiconductor Technology and the Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, both members of the Laboratory for Emerging Nanometrology (LENA), at Technische Universität Braunschweig are partners in a new European research project entitled ChipScope, which aims to develop a completely new and extremely small optical microscope capable of observing the interior of living cells in real time. A consortium of 7 partners from 5 countries will tackle this issue with very ambitious objectives during a four-year research program.
To demonstrate the usefulness of this new scientific tool, at the end of the project the developed chip-sized microscope will be used to observe in real-time...
Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.
The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.
Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...
Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.
Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...
In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.
Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...
20.03.2017 | Event News
14.03.2017 | Event News
07.03.2017 | Event News
30.03.2017 | Health and Medicine
30.03.2017 | Health and Medicine
30.03.2017 | Medical Engineering