Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Youthful stem cells from bone can heal the heart

05.09.2013
Findings raise hope for new heart therapies

Many people who survive a heart attack find themselves back in the hospital with a failing heart just years later. And the outcome often is unfavorable, owing to limited treatment options.

But scientists at Temple University School of Medicine's Cardiovascular Research Center (CVRC) recently found hope in an unlikely source – stem cells in cortical, or compact, bone. In a new study, they show that when it comes to the regeneration of heart tissue, these novel bone-derived cells do a better job than the heart's own stem cells.

According to the study's senior investigator, Steven R. Houser, Ph.D., FAHA, Chairperson of Temple's Department of Physiology and Director of the CVRC, it is early days for cortical bone-derived stem cells (CBSCs). Nonetheless, his team's findings, featured on the cover of the August 16th issue of Circulation Research, have considerable implications for stem cell therapy for the heart.

A major challenge in the treatment of heart attack is early intervention, which is key to reducing the chances for long-term complications, such as heart failure. When it comes to stem cells, Houser said, "The strategy is to inject the cells right after [a heart attack]." Currently, though, that approach works only in animal studies. To make it work in humans, Houser explained, "we need cells right off the rack and ready to go clinically."

CBSCs could be those cells. Stem cells are youthful by degrees, and CBSCs are considered some of the most pluripotent – like human newborns, naïve and ready to become anything. But while CBSCs and similarly pluripotent stem cells retain the ability to develop into any cell type needed by the body and sometimes bring their youthful energy to the aid of mature cells – making them especially appealing for therapeutics – they also have the potential to wander off course, possibly landing themselves in unintended tissues. Cardiac stem cells, on the other hand, are a little more capable and a little more set in their ways, like toddlers. While they may need some coaxing into action, they are more likely to stay in their resident tissue.

To figure out how CBSCs might behave in the heart in the first place, Houser's team, led by Temple graduate student Jason Duran, began by collecting the cells from mouse tibias. The particular mice used had been engineered with green fluorescent protein (GFP), which meant that the CBSCs carried a green marker to allow for their later identification. The cells were then expanded in petri dishes in the laboratory before being injected directly into the hearts of non-GFP mice that had suffered heart attacks. Some mice received cardiac stem cells instead of CBSCs.

In the following weeks, as the team monitored the progress of the mice, they found that the youthfulness of the CBSCs had prevailed. The cells had triggered the growth of new blood vessels in the injured tissue, and six weeks after injection, they had differentiated, or matured, into heart muscle cells. While generally smaller than native heart cells, the new cells had the same functional capabilities, and overall they had improved survival and heart function. Similar improvements were not observed in the subset of mice treated with cardiac stem cells. Nor was there evidence in those mice that the cardiac cells had undergone differentiation.

The findings challenge the general assumption that cardiac stem cells, because they reside in the heart, are the cells most capable of repairing damaged heart tissue. For that reason, according to Houser, the new paper likely will be controversial.

"What we did generates as many questions as it does answers," he said. "Cell therapy attempts to repopulate the heart with new heart cells. But which cells should be used, and when they should be put into the heart are among many unanswered questions."

To address at least some of those questions, Houser's team plans next to investigate CBSCs in a large-animal heart attack model. If that study yields similar results as the first, the cells could be ushered into a small-scale clinical trial of human patients. In humans, CBSCs would be collected from bone using techniques akin to those employed for bone marrow aspiration, a much simpler process than that used to isolate cardiac stem cells. While the cells would originate from a different person, raising the risk of rejection by the patient's immune system, it may be possible to have them at the ready in hospital settings, allowing for their injection immediately after a heart attack.

The cell therapy work by Houser's team represents just one of several forms of heart therapy being explored at Temple's CVRC. According to Houser, "Temple has made a commitment to cardiovascular research, with a clinical enterprise focused on treating patients. We're trying anything and everything to repair the heart [safely]." Other avenues of research include gene therapy, drug therapy, and the use of novel biomaterials to more effectively deliver drugs.

Other researchers contributing to the work include Catherine A. Makarewich, Thomas E. Sharp, Timothy Starosta, Yumi Chiba, Remus M. Berretta, and Hajime Kubo, at the Cardiovascular Research Center at Temple; Nicholas E. Hoffman and Muniswamy Madesh, at the Center for Translational Medicine at Temple; and Fang Zhu, at the Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Facility, Fox Chase Cancer Center.

The research was supported in part by NIH grants R01HL089312, T32HL091804, P01HL091799, and R37HL033921.

About Temple Health

Temple Health refers to the health, education and research activities carried out by the affiliates of Temple University Health System and by Temple University School of Medicine.

Temple University Health System (TUHS) is a $1.4 billion academic health system dedicated to providing access to quality patient care and supporting excellence in medical education and research. The Health System consists of Temple University Hospital (TUH), ranked among the "Best Hospitals" in the region by U.S. News & World Report; TUH-Episcopal Campus; TUH-Northeastern Campus; Fox Chase Cancer Center, an NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center; Jeanes Hospital, a community-based hospital offering medical, surgical and emergency services; Temple Transport Team, a ground and air-ambulance company; and Temple Physicians, Inc., a network of community-based specialty and primary-care physician practices. TUHS is affiliated with Temple University School of Medicine.

Temple University School of Medicine (TUSM), established in 1901, is one of the nation's leading medical schools. Each year, the School of Medicine educates approximately 840 medical students and 140 graduate students. Based on its level of funding from the National Institutes of Health, Temple University School of Medicine is the second-highest ranked medical school in Philadelphia and the third-highest in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. According to U.S. News & World Report, TUSM is among the top 10 most applied-to medical schools in the nation.

Jeremy Walter | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.temple.edu

Further reports about: CBSCs CVRC Medicine TUHS TUSM blood vessel cardiovascular disease health services heart cells stem cells

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Satellites, airport visibility readings shed light on troops' exposure to air pollution
09.12.2016 | Veterans Affairs Research Communications

nachricht Oxygen can wake up dormant bacteria for antibiotic attacks
08.12.2016 | Penn State

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Electron highway inside crystal

Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. The effect is due to the structure of the materials used. The researchers have now published their work in the journal Science.

Topological insulators are currently the hot topic in physics according to the newspaper Neue Zürcher Zeitung. Only a few weeks ago, their importance was...

Im Focus: Significantly more productivity in USP lasers

In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.

Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Researchers identify potentially druggable mutant p53 proteins that promote cancer growth

09.12.2016 | Life Sciences

Scientists produce a new roadmap for guiding development & conservation in the Amazon

09.12.2016 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation

Satellites, airport visibility readings shed light on troops' exposure to air pollution

09.12.2016 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>