"Everybody ages differently. By looking at genetic variations and individual differences in markers of vascular health, we begin to understand that preventable factors may affect our chances for successful aging," said Wayne State University psychology doctoral student Andrew Bender, lead author of a study supported by the National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health and now in press in the journal Neuropsychologia.
The report, "Age-related Differences in Memory and Executive Functions in Healthy APOE å4 Carriers: The Contribution of Individual Differences in Prefrontal Volumes and Systolic Blood Pressure," focuses on carriers of the å4 variant of the apolipoprotein (APOE) gene, present in roughly 25 percent of the population. Compared to those who possess other forms of the APOE gene, carriers of the å4 allele are at significantly greater risk for Alzheimer's, dementia and cardiovascular disease.
Many studies also have shown that nondemented carriers of the APOE å4 variant have smaller brain volumes and perform less well on cognitive tests than carriers of other gene variants. Those findings, however, are not consistent, and a possible explanation may come from examining interactions between the risky genes and other factors, such as markers of cardiovascular health. Prior research in typical samples of older adults has shown that indeed other vascular risk factors — such as elevated cholesterol, hypertension or diabetes — can exacerbate the impact of the APOE å4 variant on brain and cognition, but it is unclear if such synergy of risks is present in healthy adults.
Thus, Wayne State researchers evaluated a group of volunteers from 19 to 77 years of age who self-reported as exceptionally healthy on a questionnaire that screened for a number of conditions, representing a "best case scenario" of healthy aging. The research project, led by Naftali Raz, Ph.D., professor of psychology and director of the Lifespan Cognitive Neuroscience Research Program at WSU's Institute of Gerontology, tested different cognitive abilities known for their sensitivity to aging and the effects of the APOE å4 variant. Those abilities include speed of information processing, working memory (holding and manipulating information in one's mind) and episodic memory (memory for events).
Researchers also measured participants' blood pressure, performed genetic testing to determine which APOE variant participants carried, and measured the volumes of several critical brain regions using a high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging brain scan. Bender and Raz showed that for older APOE å4 carriers, even minor increases in systolic blood pressure (the higher of the two numbers that are reported in blood pressure measures) were linked with smaller volumes of the prefrontal cortex and prefrontal white matter, slower speed of information processing, reduced working memory capacity and worse verbal memory. Notably, they said, that pattern was not evident in those who lacked the å4 gene variant.
The study concludes that the APOE å4 gene may make its carriers sensitive to negative effects of relatively subtle elevations in systolic blood pressure, and that the interplay between two risk factors, genetic and physiological, is detrimental to the key brain structures and associated cognitive functions.
"Although genes play a significant role in shaping the effects of age and vascular risk on the brain and cognition, the impact of single genetic variants is relatively small, and there are quite a few of them. Thus, one's aging should not be seen through the lens of one's genetic profile," cautioned the study's authors. They continued, "The negative impact of many genetic variations needs help from other risk factors, and while there isn't much one can do about genes, a lot can be done about vascular risk factors such as blood pressure or cholesterol."
"Everybody should try to keep those in check, although people with certain genetic variants more so than others." Raz said. "Practically speaking, even with the best deck of genetic cards dealt to you, it still makes sense to reduce risk through whatever works: exercise, diet or, if those fail, medication."
Because the study is part of a longitudinal project, he and Bender said the immediate future task now is to determine how the interaction between risky genes and vascular risk factors affect the trajectory of age-related changes — not differences, as in this cross-sectional study — in brain and cognition.
Wayne State University is one of the nation's pre-eminent public research universities in an urban setting. Through its multidisciplinary approach to research and education, and its ongoing collaboration with government, industry and other institutions, the university seeks to enhance economic growth and improve the quality of life in the city of Detroit, state of Michigan and throughout the world. For more information about research at Wayne State University, visit http://www.research.wayne.edu.
Julie O'Connor | EurekAlert!
Scientists develop tiny tooth-mounted sensors that can track what you eat
22.03.2018 | Tufts University
NIH scientists describe potential antibody treatment for multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae
14.03.2018 | NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
An international team of researchers has discovered a new anti-cancer protein. The protein, called LHPP, prevents the uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells in the liver. The researchers led by Prof. Michael N. Hall from the Biozentrum, University of Basel, report in “Nature” that LHPP can also serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of liver cancer.
The incidence of liver cancer, also known as hepatocellular carcinoma, is steadily increasing. In the last twenty years, the number of cases has almost doubled...
In just a few weeks from now, the Chinese space station Tiangong-1 will re-enter the Earth's atmosphere where it will to a large extent burn up. It is possible that some debris will reach the Earth's surface. Tiangong-1 is orbiting the Earth uncontrolled at a speed of approx. 29,000 km/h.Currently the prognosis relating to the time of impact currently lies within a window of several days. The scientists at Fraunhofer FHR have already been monitoring Tiangong-1 for a number of weeks with their TIRA system, one of the most powerful space observation radars in the world, with a view to supporting the German Space Situational Awareness Center and the ESA with their re-entry forecasts.
Following the loss of radio contact with Tiangong-1 in 2016 and due to the low orbital height, it is now inevitable that the Chinese space station will...
Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, provider of research and development services for OLED lighting solutions, announces the founding of the “OLED Licht Forum” and presents latest OLED design and lighting solutions during light+building, from March 18th – 23rd, 2018 in Frankfurt a.M./Germany, at booth no. F91 in Hall 4.0.
They are united in their passion for OLED (organic light emitting diodes) lighting with all of its unique facets and application possibilities. Thus experts in...
A new scenario seeking to explain how Mars' putative oceans came and went over the last 4 billion years implies that the oceans formed several hundred million...
For the first time, an interdisciplinary team from the University of Basel has succeeded in integrating artificial organelles into the cells of live zebrafish embryos. This innovative approach using artificial organelles as cellular implants offers new potential in treating a range of diseases, as the authors report in an article published in Nature Communications.
In the cells of higher organisms, organelles such as the nucleus or mitochondria perform a range of complex functions necessary for life. In the networks of...
19.03.2018 | Event News
16.03.2018 | Event News
13.03.2018 | Event News
22.03.2018 | Trade Fair News
22.03.2018 | Earth Sciences
22.03.2018 | Earth Sciences