Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Urine test for kidney cancer a step closer to development

08.04.2010
Studying patients with kidney cancer, a team of researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis has identified a pair of proteins excreted in the urine that could lead to earlier and more accurate diagnosis of the disease.

The research, published online in the May issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings, is the first to identify proteins secreted in urine that appear to accurately reveal the presence of about 90 percent of all kidney cancers.

Currently, there is no diagnostic test for kidney cancer. About 80 percent of kidney tumors are discovered incidentally, during a CT scan or ultrasound test that has been ordered for an unrelated abdominal complaint.

“Kidney cancer is a silent and frequently fatal cancer,” says principal investigator Evan D. Kharasch, MD, PhD. “More than 80 percent of patients die within two years of diagnosis, and more than 95 percent die within five years because by the time the cancer is detected, it often has spread beyond the kidney. When it is identified early, however, kidney cancer is curable in a very high percentage of individuals."

Kharasch and co-investigator Jeremiah J. Morrissey, PhD, looked at urine samples from 42 patients who became aware that they had kidney cancer during an abdominal imaging test and from 15 individuals who did not have cancer but were scheduled for surgery. Another 19 healthy volunteers were included who were not having surgery of any kind.

The researchers focused on two proteins that previously had been found in kidney tumors: aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and adipophilin (ADFP). They discovered large amounts of those proteins in urine samples from kidney cancer patients.

The AQP1 or ADFP proteins were not elevated in healthy individuals or surgery patients without cancer. The researchers also found that when the kidney tumors were removed, AQP1 and ADFP levels in the urine declined precipitously.

“We believe that in the same way we use mammograms to screen for breast cancer and blood tests to screen for prostate cancer, we may have the opportunity to detect these proteins in urine as a way to screen for kidney cancer,” Kharasch says.

Kharasch, vice chancellor for research at Washington University, the Russell D. and Mary B. Shelden Professor of Anesthesiology and director of the Division of Clinical and Translational Research in the Department of Anesthesiology, has been working with lead author Morrissey, a research professor of anesthesiology, to detect kidney cancer at an earlier stage.

“When patients come to surgery, it tends to be late in the process, and many already have progressed to a stage where the prognosis is pretty bleak,” says Morrissey. “Screening patients to find kidney cancer when it is still small and treatable could save a number of lives and preserve kidney function in many people. It also may represent the difference between losing an entire kidney or extracting only a tumor while sparing healthy portions of the organ."

About 50,000 patients are diagnosed with kidney cancer each year. And about 13,000 people die from the disease annually in the United States alone. A test that could lead to earlier diagnosis could make a big dent in those numbers, according to Timothy J. Eberlein, MD, director of the Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center at Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine.

“One of the goals of the Siteman Cancer Center is to diagnose tumors as early as possible, when they are more curable,” Eberlein says. “Most kidney tumors are found in more advanced stages, when the patient is symptomatic and less likely to be cured. These new findings open the door for a quick, noninvasive test and could revolutionize our approach to the early, accurate diagnosis of kidney cancer."

Morrissey says further testing will be required to determine whether people with other types of kidney disease also have high levels of AQP1 and ADFP in their urine, too. But based upon their findings, Kharasch and Morrisey have filed a patent application through Washington University's Office of Technology Management for use of aquaporin-1 and adipophilin to diagnose kidney cancer.

Because this study looked only at patients who already had a cancer diagnosis following an imaging test, Kharasch and Morrissey say more research will be needed to see how early in the disease process levels of the AQP1 or ADFP proteins rise and whether the concentration of those proteins in the urine might correspond to the size of a kidney tumor.

If the research continues to demonstrate that AQP1 and ADFP urine levels are good markers of kidney cancer, it may someday be possible for routine screening for the disease in a doctor’s office, using a noninvasive urine test to determine whether or not they have the disease.

Morrissey JJ, London AN, Luo J, Kharasch ED. Urinary biomarkers for the early diagnosis of kidney cancer, Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 85, number 5. May 2010. doi:10.4065/mcp.2009.0709

This research was supported by the Department of Anesthesiology at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.

Washington University School of Medicine's 2,100 employed and volunteer faculty physicians also are the medical staff of Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children's hospitals. The School of Medicine is one of the leading medical research, teaching and patient care institutions in the nation, currently ranked third in the nation by U.S. News & World Report. Through its affiliations with Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children's hospitals, the School of Medicine is linked to BJC HealthCare.

Jim Dryden | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.wustl.edu

Further reports about: ADFP AQP1 Anesthesiology Medicine Urine NGAL blood test kidney cancer proteins urine samples

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht On track to heal leukaemia
18.01.2017 | Universitätsspital Bern

nachricht Penn vet research identifies new target for taming Ebola
12.01.2017 | University of Pennsylvania

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

Im Focus: How to inflate a hardened concrete shell with a weight of 80 t

At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).

Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

Nothing will happen without batteries making it happen!

05.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Explaining how 2-D materials break at the atomic level

18.01.2017 | Materials Sciences

Data analysis optimizes cyber-physical systems in telecommunications and building automation

18.01.2017 | Information Technology

Reducing household waste with less energy

18.01.2017 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>