Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Urine test for kidney cancer a step closer to development

08.04.2010
Studying patients with kidney cancer, a team of researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis has identified a pair of proteins excreted in the urine that could lead to earlier and more accurate diagnosis of the disease.

The research, published online in the May issue of Mayo Clinic Proceedings, is the first to identify proteins secreted in urine that appear to accurately reveal the presence of about 90 percent of all kidney cancers.

Currently, there is no diagnostic test for kidney cancer. About 80 percent of kidney tumors are discovered incidentally, during a CT scan or ultrasound test that has been ordered for an unrelated abdominal complaint.

“Kidney cancer is a silent and frequently fatal cancer,” says principal investigator Evan D. Kharasch, MD, PhD. “More than 80 percent of patients die within two years of diagnosis, and more than 95 percent die within five years because by the time the cancer is detected, it often has spread beyond the kidney. When it is identified early, however, kidney cancer is curable in a very high percentage of individuals."

Kharasch and co-investigator Jeremiah J. Morrissey, PhD, looked at urine samples from 42 patients who became aware that they had kidney cancer during an abdominal imaging test and from 15 individuals who did not have cancer but were scheduled for surgery. Another 19 healthy volunteers were included who were not having surgery of any kind.

The researchers focused on two proteins that previously had been found in kidney tumors: aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and adipophilin (ADFP). They discovered large amounts of those proteins in urine samples from kidney cancer patients.

The AQP1 or ADFP proteins were not elevated in healthy individuals or surgery patients without cancer. The researchers also found that when the kidney tumors were removed, AQP1 and ADFP levels in the urine declined precipitously.

“We believe that in the same way we use mammograms to screen for breast cancer and blood tests to screen for prostate cancer, we may have the opportunity to detect these proteins in urine as a way to screen for kidney cancer,” Kharasch says.

Kharasch, vice chancellor for research at Washington University, the Russell D. and Mary B. Shelden Professor of Anesthesiology and director of the Division of Clinical and Translational Research in the Department of Anesthesiology, has been working with lead author Morrissey, a research professor of anesthesiology, to detect kidney cancer at an earlier stage.

“When patients come to surgery, it tends to be late in the process, and many already have progressed to a stage where the prognosis is pretty bleak,” says Morrissey. “Screening patients to find kidney cancer when it is still small and treatable could save a number of lives and preserve kidney function in many people. It also may represent the difference between losing an entire kidney or extracting only a tumor while sparing healthy portions of the organ."

About 50,000 patients are diagnosed with kidney cancer each year. And about 13,000 people die from the disease annually in the United States alone. A test that could lead to earlier diagnosis could make a big dent in those numbers, according to Timothy J. Eberlein, MD, director of the Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center at Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine.

“One of the goals of the Siteman Cancer Center is to diagnose tumors as early as possible, when they are more curable,” Eberlein says. “Most kidney tumors are found in more advanced stages, when the patient is symptomatic and less likely to be cured. These new findings open the door for a quick, noninvasive test and could revolutionize our approach to the early, accurate diagnosis of kidney cancer."

Morrissey says further testing will be required to determine whether people with other types of kidney disease also have high levels of AQP1 and ADFP in their urine, too. But based upon their findings, Kharasch and Morrisey have filed a patent application through Washington University's Office of Technology Management for use of aquaporin-1 and adipophilin to diagnose kidney cancer.

Because this study looked only at patients who already had a cancer diagnosis following an imaging test, Kharasch and Morrissey say more research will be needed to see how early in the disease process levels of the AQP1 or ADFP proteins rise and whether the concentration of those proteins in the urine might correspond to the size of a kidney tumor.

If the research continues to demonstrate that AQP1 and ADFP urine levels are good markers of kidney cancer, it may someday be possible for routine screening for the disease in a doctor’s office, using a noninvasive urine test to determine whether or not they have the disease.

Morrissey JJ, London AN, Luo J, Kharasch ED. Urinary biomarkers for the early diagnosis of kidney cancer, Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 85, number 5. May 2010. doi:10.4065/mcp.2009.0709

This research was supported by the Department of Anesthesiology at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.

Washington University School of Medicine's 2,100 employed and volunteer faculty physicians also are the medical staff of Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children's hospitals. The School of Medicine is one of the leading medical research, teaching and patient care institutions in the nation, currently ranked third in the nation by U.S. News & World Report. Through its affiliations with Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children's hospitals, the School of Medicine is linked to BJC HealthCare.

Jim Dryden | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.wustl.edu

Further reports about: ADFP AQP1 Anesthesiology Medicine Urine NGAL blood test kidney cancer proteins urine samples

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht NTU scientists build new ultrasound device using 3-D printing technology
07.12.2016 | Nanyang Technological University

nachricht How to turn white fat brown
07.12.2016 | University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Significantly more productivity in USP lasers

In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.

Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

NTU scientists build new ultrasound device using 3-D printing technology

07.12.2016 | Health and Medicine

The balancing act: An enzyme that links endocytosis to membrane recycling

07.12.2016 | Life Sciences

How to turn white fat brown

07.12.2016 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>