Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

UNC researchers find 2 biomarkers linked to severe heart disease

07.07.2015

The finding published in PLoS One suggests that elevated oxidized LDL cholesterol and fructosamine -- a measure of glycated proteins in blood sugar -- are signposts for the development of severe coronary disease, especially in females

Insulin resistance affects tens of millions of Americans and is a big risk factor for heart disease. Yet, some people with the condition never develop heart disease, while some experience moderate coronary blockages. Others, though, get severe atherosclerosis - multiple blockages and deterioration of coronary arteries characterized by thick, hard, plaque-ridden arterial walls. Researchers at the UNC School of Medicine created a first-of-its-kind animal model to pinpoint two biomarkers that are elevated in the most severe form of coronary disease.


Left: moderate heart disease with limited arterial blockages in the heart of a pig are shown. Right: this image shows severe disease with several near-total blockages. The two biomarkers were greatly elevated only in severe disease.

Credit: UNC School of Medicine

The study, published today in the journal PLoS One, suggests two new targets - oxidized LDL cholesterol and glycated proteins (i.e., fructosamine or hemoglobin A1c) - that researchers can further investigate and perhaps target through medications to help people with insulin resistance avoid the worst kind of heart disease.

"If these correlations were also found in insulin resistant humans, then we would want to do everything we could to treat them because they would be at a very high risk of developing severe cardiovascular disease," said Timothy Nichols, MD, professor of medicine and pathology and first author of the PLoS One paper.

Interestingly, Nichols and his colleagues did not set out to pinpoint the two key biomarkers. They wanted to create an insulin resistant animal model that mimicked human heart disease. They chose pigs, which are metabolically similar to humans and have hearts very much like human hearts. By feeding the animals a diet high in fat and salt over the course of a year, all the pigs became insulin resistant. That is, their bodies produced a lot of insulin but their cells did not respond to the hormone as well as normal. All the pigs also developed coronary and aortic atherosclerosis. But only about half of the pigs developed the most severe form of the disease.

When the researchers checked the pigs for high levels of insulin resistance, they found no correlation with the most severe atherosclerosis. This was a surprising and unexpected finding.

David Clemmons, MD, the Sarah Graham Kenan Professor of Medicine, professor of biochemistry and biophysics, and senior author of the PLoS One paper, knew that the scientific literature suggested a correlation between atherosclerosis and glycated proteins - proteins bonded with sugars in blood.

Clemmons and colleagues tested the pigs for high levels of fructosamine and oxidized LDL cholesterol, which are surrogates for high levels of glycated proteins. Sure enough, all the pigs with severe heart disease had elevated levels of fructosamine and oxidized LDL.

"Also, this correlation was more common in females," Clemmons said. Fourteen of the 20 pigs that developed severe atherosclerosis were females. Fourteen of the 17 pigs that did not develop severe atherosclerosis were male. "This surprised me, so I looked in the literature for anything similar."

Clemmons found a study from Finland published in 2005 showing that elevated glycated protein levels were strongly associated with advanced heart disease and increased mortality in women but not in men.

"The underlying causes of this correlation are unknown," Clemmons said. "But now we have a unique animal model that very much mimics what we see in humans. Our model is a good predictor of diet-induced atherosclerosis in females."

A next step could be to study the affected heart tissue to find abnormal biochemical reactions in the cellular pathways involved in glycated proteins and severe coronary disease. This could lead to potential new treatment approaches or tailored dietary interventions.

Clemmons added, "We could also study what's different about these female pigs that make them much more susceptible to severe heart disease, if they have higher levels of glycated proteins."

###

The National Institutes of Health and the North Carolina Biotechnology Center funded this research.

Timothy Nichols, MD is a physician at the UNC Heart and Vascular Center and director of the Francis Owen Blood Research Laboratory. David Clemmons, MD, is a member of the UNC Diabetes Care Center.

Mark Derewicz | EurekAlert!

Further reports about: Atherosclerosis Biomarkers PLoS One UNC heart disease oxidized LDL pigs proteins

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Penn vet research identifies new target for taming Ebola
12.01.2017 | University of Pennsylvania

nachricht The strange double life of Dab2
10.01.2017 | University of Miami Miller School of Medicine

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

Im Focus: How to inflate a hardened concrete shell with a weight of 80 t

At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).

Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...

Im Focus: Bacterial Pac Man molecule snaps at sugar

Many pathogens use certain sugar compounds from their host to help conceal themselves against the immune system. Scientists at the University of Bonn have now, in cooperation with researchers at the University of York in the United Kingdom, analyzed the dynamics of a bacterial molecule that is involved in this process. They demonstrate that the protein grabs onto the sugar molecule with a Pac Man-like chewing motion and holds it until it can be used. Their results could help design therapeutics that could make the protein poorer at grabbing and holding and hence compromise the pathogen in the host. The study has now been published in “Biophysical Journal”.

The cells of the mouth, nose and intestinal mucosa produce large quantities of a chemical called sialic acid. Many bacteria possess a special transport system...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

Nothing will happen without batteries making it happen!

05.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Water - as the underlying driver of the Earth’s carbon cycle

17.01.2017 | Earth Sciences

Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

17.01.2017 | Materials Sciences

Smart homes will “LISTEN” to your voice

17.01.2017 | Architecture and Construction

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>