Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Treatments to reduce anesthesia-induced injury in children show promise in animal studies

29.03.2012
Recent clinical studies have shown that general anesthesia can be harmful to infants, presenting a dilemma for both doctors and parents. But new research at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center may point the way to treatment options that protect very young children against the adverse effects of anesthesia.
As detailed in a study published in the March 23 online edition of the journal Neuroscience, Wake Forest Baptist scientists explored a number of strategies designed to prevent anesthesia-induced damage to the brain in infants.

Using an animal model, the researchers tested the effectiveness of a fragment of a neuroprotective protein called ADNP, as well as vitamin D3, a low-level dose of anesthetic and aspirin. They found that three of the four strategies tested protected the brain from injury induced by 20 mg ketamine, a commonly used general anesthetic.
"What didn't work was aspirin, which was a surprise because aspirin is known to protect the brain from injury," said Christopher P. Turner, Ph.D., assistant professor of neurobiology and anatomy at Wake Forest Baptist and lead author of the study. "In fact, in our study aspirin actually increased the severity of injury from the anesthesia, possibly because it prevents the generation of substances that may be neuroprotective."

Turner and his team studied rats at ages equivalent to children from birth to age 4.

In separate tests, the rodents were injected with: NAP, a peptide fragment of activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP), 15 minutes before ketamine was administered; two 20-mg doses of vitamin D3, at 24 hours and at 15 minutes before 20 mg ketamine; a non-toxic (5 mg) doses of ketamine 24 hours before a toxic dose of 20 mg ketamine was administered; and a 30-mg dose of aspirin 15 minutes before exposure to ketamine.

The Turner lab found that NAP, vitamin D3 and prior exposure to low (non-toxic) ketamine could all prevent injury from exposure to a toxic (20 mg) level of ketamine. However, aspirin appeared to enhance ketamine-induced injury.

"We designed our studies to give doctors several possible treatment options because not all of these strategies may work in clinical applications," Turner said. "However, because vitamin D3 is already in clinical use, our findings show that it is quite promising with few risks. Further, NAP is currently in clinical trials to diminish the severity of other types of brain injury, so we feel this discovery represents a breakthrough for anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity. However, there may be a critical window of efficacy for NAP, which we need to explore further.

"Of all the approaches that our team studied, using a low dose of ketamine may be both the simplest and most cost-effective, as it suggests children can be pre-treated with the same anesthesia that will be used when they undergo general surgery," Turner added. "In essence, a low-level dose of ketamine primes the child's brain so that the second, higher dose is not as lethal, much like an inoculation."

The study was funded by the National Institutes of Health, Wake Forest Baptist Intramural Research Fundand the Tab Williams Family Neuroscience Endowment Fund.

Co-authors of the study are: Silvia Gutierrez, Ph.D., Chun Liu, Lance Miller, Ph.D., Jeff Chou, Ph.D., Beth Finucane, Ansley Carnes, James Kim, Elaine Shing, Tyler Haddad and Angela Phillips, all of Wake Forest Baptist.
Media contacts: Marguerite Beck, marbeck@wakehealth.edu, 336-716-2415; Media office main number, 336-716-4587.

Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center (www.wakehealth.edu) is a fully integrated academic medical center located in Winston-Salem, N.C. Wake Forest School of Medicine directs the education and research components, with the medical school ranked among the nation's best and recognized as a leading research center in regenerative medicine, cancer, the neurosciences, aging, addiction and public health sciences. Piedmont Triad Research Park, a division of Wake Forest Baptist, fosters biotechnology innovation in an urban park community. Wake Forest Baptist Health, the clinical enterprise, includes a flagship tertiary care hospital for adults, Brenner Children's Hospital, a network of affiliated community-based hospitals, physician practices and outpatient services. The institution's clinical programs and the medical school are consistently recognized as among the best in the country by U.S.News & World Report.

Marguerite Beck | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.wakehealth.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Vanishing capillaries
23.03.2017 | Technische Universität München

nachricht How prenatal maternal infections may affect genetic factors in Autism spectrum disorder
22.03.2017 | University of California - San Diego

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

Im Focus: Researchers Imitate Molecular Crowding in Cells

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

When Air is in Short Supply - Shedding light on plant stress reactions when oxygen runs short

23.03.2017 | Life Sciences

Researchers use light to remotely control curvature of plastics

23.03.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Sea ice extent sinks to record lows at both poles

23.03.2017 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>