A new study found that treatment-resistant epilepsy (TRE) is common in idiopathic autism. Early age at the onset of seizures and delayed global development were associated with a higher frequency of resistance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Full findings appear online in Epilepsia, a journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE).
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of developmental disabilities that can significantly impact social interaction, communication and behavior. The CDC estimates that on average, 1 in 110 U.S. children has an ASD (which is four times more likely to develop in boys than in girls). Medical evidence suggests that the prevalence of epilepsy in autism ranges from 7% to 46%.
Researchers on the present study team, led by Orrin Devinsky, M.D., Professor of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry at NYU School of Medicine and Director of the NYU Comprehensive Epilepsy Center in New York, reviewed clinical and laboratory data for patients with idiopathic autism evaluated at the Center during a 20-year period. Seizures were classified using ILAE criteria, with treatment resistance defined as failure of adequate trials of two tolerated AED regimens. "Treatment-resistant epilepsy is common among patients with autism, and more than one-third of patients in our study group had TRE," said Dr. Devinsky. "Among patients for whom we had complete AED and seizure control data, 55% had TRE."
Among the 127 patients with autism and at least one epileptic seizure, 34% had TRE and 28% were seizure-free. The remaining 39% of patients with autism and epilepsy had infrequent seizures or insufficient data to properly categorize them. In patients with TRE, researchers found that seizure onset was at an earlier age than in patients who were seizure free. TRE patients also had more developmental regression, as well as motor and language delays, than seizure-free participants.
Three patients had surgical resection and one underwent anterior callosotomy; these surgical treatments provided little or no improvement in seizure status. In nine patients with vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) implantation, limited improvement of seizures was noted in two patients and no improvement in seven patients. "In patients with autism, we found that surgical and VNS outcomes were less favorable, providing a lower rate of seizure freedom, than in other TRE populations," concluded Dr. Devinsky. "Further studies are needed to explore the association between chronic epilepsy and autism."
The Autism Society declares April as National Autism Awareness Month.
This study is published in Epilepsia. Media wishing to receive a PDF of this article may contact email@example.com.
Full citation: "Medically Refractory Epilepsy in Autism." Gemma Sansa, Chad Carlson, Werner Doyle, Howard Weiner, Judith Bluvstein, William Barr and Orrin Devinsky. Epilepsia; Published Online: April 19, 2011 (DOI: 10.1111/j.1528-1167.2011.03069.x). http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1528-1167.2011.03069.x.
Epilepsia is the leading, most authoritative source for current clinical and research results on all aspects of epilepsy. As the journal of the International League Against Epilepsy, subscribers every month will review scientific evidence and clinical methodology in: clinical neurology, neurophysiology, molecular biology, neuroimaging, neurochemistry, neurosurgery, pharmacology, neuroepidemiology, and therapeutic trials. For more information, please visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1528-1167.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons, with strengths in every major academic and professional field and partnerships with many of the world's leading societies. Wiley-Blackwell publishes nearly 1,500 peer-reviewed journals and 1,500+ new books annually in print and online, as well as databases, major reference works and laboratory protocols. For more information, please visit www.wileyblackwell.com or our new online platform, Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), one of the world's most extensive multidisciplinary collections of online resources, covering life, health, social and physical sciences, and humanities.
Dawn Peters | EurekAlert!
Inflammation Triggers Unsustainable Immune Response to Chronic Viral Infection
24.10.2016 | Universität Basel
Resolving the mystery of preeclampsia
21.10.2016 | Universitätsklinikum Magdeburg
Ultrafast lasers have introduced new possibilities in engraving ultrafine structures, and scientists are now also investigating how to use them to etch microstructures into thin glass. There are possible applications in analytics (lab on a chip) and especially in electronics and the consumer sector, where great interest has been shown.
This new method was born of a surprising phenomenon: irradiating glass in a particular way with an ultrafast laser has the effect of making the glass up to a...
Terahertz excitation of selected crystal vibrations leads to an effective magnetic field that drives coherent spin motion
Controlling functional properties by light is one of the grand goals in modern condensed matter physics and materials science. A new study now demonstrates how...
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.
"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...
In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.
A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...
By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.
"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...
14.10.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
12.10.2016 | Event News
25.10.2016 | Earth Sciences
25.10.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering
25.10.2016 | Process Engineering