Registered pharmacist Daniel Röshammar has in his thesis studied the optimal use of certain pharmaceutical substances that are used to combat HIV/AIDS and malaria. He has analysed, among other things, data from 121 healthy volunteers from Uganda using a mathematical model known as a pharmacometric model.
The study showed that both sex and genetic differences between individuals influence the way in which the body metabolises efavirenz, which is part of some anti-HIV/AIDS drugs. Other studies have focussed on 74 people from Zimbabwe with HIV/AIDS, and showed that a reduction in the daily dose of efavirenz from 600 mg to 400 mg can reduce the risk of undesired effects in those affected who have a genetically conditioned poorer ability to catabolise the substance.
"Many HIV/AIDS patients are treated with efavirenz, and they should be genetically tested using a blood test before deciding on a dose. This is particularly important in Africa, where the fraction of patients with a poorer catabolic ability is greater than it is elsewhere", says Daniel Röshammar.
Repeated measurements of the drug concentrations and virus levels in 239 previously untreated Scandinavian patients with HIV/AIDS allowed a similar model to be used in order to study the antiretroviral effects of anti-HIV/AIDS drugs. Calculations showed that treatment in which efavirenz was combined with other pharmaceutical substances was more effective than two other frequently used combination treatments.
"It may be possible in the future to use the model to predict when the treatment will loose its effectiveness for an individual patient, and explain why", says Daniel Röshammar.
Further work involved using a model to describe how the catabolism of the anti-malarial drug artemisinin increases and the concentration of the drug decreases when patients take this drug. When artemisinin was given to 97 patients in Vietnam without other drugs, approximately 37% of them were affected by recrudescent malaria. The model showed that this could not be explained solely by low drug concentrations. Another anti-malarial drug, piperaquine, may be a suitable partner for artemisinin in the treatment of malaria. An investigation of 12 Vietnamese study subjects, however, allowed scientists to estimate that the levels of piperaquine that remain in the body are too low to be effective, and this increases the risk that the malaria parasite will develop resistance.
"Research shows that pharmacometric models can be adapted to patient data in order to understand the relationships between drug concentration, effectiveness and the progress of disease, while at the same time taking into consideration differences between patients such as, for example, weight, age, sex, genetic factors, other diseases and other drugs. We expect that these tools will be important in the fight against HIV/AIDS and malaria", says Daniel Röshammar.The thesis has been written by:
Title of the thesis: Applied Population Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modeling of Antiretroviral and Antimalarial Drug TherapyPress information: Ulrika Lundin
Helena Aaberg | idw
Using fragment-based approaches to discover new antibiotics
21.06.2018 | SLAS (Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening)
Scientists learn more about how gene linked to autism affects brain
19.06.2018 | Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
In a recent publication in the renowned journal Optica, scientists of Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology (Leibniz IPHT) in Jena showed that they can accurately control the optical properties of liquid-core fiber lasers and therefore their spectral band width by temperature and pressure tuning.
Already last year, the researchers provided experimental proof of a new dynamic of hybrid solitons– temporally and spectrally stationary light waves resulting...
Scientists from the University of Freiburg and the University of Basel identified a master regulator for bone regeneration. Prasad Shastri, Professor of...
Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.
Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...
The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.
Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.
An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.
Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...
13.06.2018 | Event News
08.06.2018 | Event News
05.06.2018 | Event News
21.06.2018 | Earth Sciences
21.06.2018 | Life Sciences
21.06.2018 | Earth Sciences