Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

The Surface Area of the Digestive Tract "only" as Large as a Studio Apartment

23.04.2014

The internal surface area of the gastro-intestinal tract has long been considered to be between 180 and 300 square meters. Scientists at the Sahlgrenska Academy have used refined microscopic techniques that indicate a much smaller area.

“Actually, the inner surface of the gastro-intestinal tract is only as large as a normal studio apartment,” says scientist Lars Fändriks.

The digestive tract, which passes from the mouth through the esophagus and onwards through the intestines, has a length of about 5 meters in a normal adult, and is built up with many folds and protrusions.

Previous calculations, which are reproduced in reference works and textbooks, state that the area of the inner surface of the digestive tract is between 180 and 300 square meters – as large as, or even larger than, a tennis court.

Wrong figures
A new study from the Sahlgrenska Academy, published in the Scandinavian Journal of Gastroentorology, shows that these figures are wrong.

Scientists Lars Fändriks and Herbert Helander have used quantitative microscopic techniques to determine that the surface area of the gastro-intestinal tract in healthy adults is “only” between 30 and 40 square meters.

By far the greatest part of this is the small intestine. The area of the large intestine is approximately 2 square meters, while the mouth, esophagus and stomach amount to less than 1 square meter.

Half of a badminton court
Lars Fändriks finds it surprising that the area of the gastro-intestinal tract is not that of a tennis court, rather half of a badminton court.

“It may appear to be simply a curious fact, but the dimensions of the inner surface of the gastro-intestinal tract are important for the uptake of nutrients and drugs, and the new information will help us understand how the mucous membrane protects the body from harmful factors in the intestinal contents,” he says.

Misleading measurements
The Gothenburg scientists explain how the previously erroneous results were arrived at:

“The gastro-intestinal tract is a dynamic system that is difficult to access in the abdominal cavity, and this makes it difficult to measure. Since the past measurements were carried out either during post mortems or during abdominal surgery, when the tissue is relaxed, it is easy to obtain misleading measurements,” says Herbert Helander.

Radiological investigations
The two scientists from Gothenburg have used data from radiological investigations, supplemented with studies of the microscopical structure of the gastro-intestinal tract, where they have used endoscopes to obtain samples of the mucous membrane of the intestines.

The scientists emphasize that the new dimensions are valid for a healthy “average” adult: the length and surface area of the digestive tract differs from person to person. In addition, the measurement for an individual is probably affected by diet and lifestyle.

“From an anatomical point of view, 30-40 square meters is more than enough for the uptake of nutrients. Furthermore, the smaller area is actually quite logical, since it means that the risk of effects from the intestinal contents is lower,” says Herbert Helander.

The article Surface area of the digestive tract – revisited was published in the Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology on 2 April.

Link to the article: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/00365521.2014.898326

FACTS ABOUT THE DIGESTIVE TRACT
The principle function of the digestive tract is the digestion of food and the absorption of nutrients. The tract is also an important “detection point” for the body’s immune system. Both of these functions require a large surface area. On the other hand, the intestinal contents contain toxins that have accompanied the food, as well as bacteria, which may cause disease. The mucous membrane of the intestines then functions as a barrier to these harmful factors – and in this case it is an advantage to have a small surface area.

Contact:
Herbert Helander, Professor emeritus at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg
Tel.: +46 300 74421
Mobile: +46 705 505139
herberthelander@hotmail.com

Lars Fändriks, Professor at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg
Tel.: +46 31 342 4123
Mobile: +46 70 592 2603
lars.fandriks@gastro.gu.se

Weitere Informationen:

http://sahlgrenska.gu.se/english/news_and_events/news/News_Detail//the-surface-a...

Krister Svahn | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

Further reports about: Academy Digestive Gastroenterology Studio gastro-intestinal tract measurements mouth

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Nanotubes are beacons in cancer-imaging technique
23.05.2016 | Rice University

nachricht More light on cancer
20.05.2016 | Lomonosov Moscow State University

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Worldwide Success of Tyrolean Wastewater Treatment Technology

A biological and energy-efficient process, developed and patented by the University of Innsbruck, converts nitrogen compounds in wastewater treatment facilities into harmless atmospheric nitrogen gas. This innovative technology is now being refined and marketed jointly with the United States’ DC Water and Sewer Authority (DC Water). The largest DEMON®-system in a wastewater treatment plant is currently being built in Washington, DC.

The DEMON®-system was developed and patented by the University of Innsbruck 11 years ago. Today this successful technology has been implemented in about 70...

Im Focus: Computational high-throughput screening finds hard magnets containing less rare earth elements

Permanent magnets are very important for technologies of the future like electromobility and renewable energy, and rare earth elements (REE) are necessary for their manufacture. The Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM in Freiburg, Germany, has now succeeded in identifying promising approaches and materials for new permanent magnets through use of an in-house simulation process based on high-throughput screening (HTS). The team was able to improve magnetic properties this way and at the same time replaced REE with elements that are less expensive and readily available. The results were published in the online technical journal “Scientific Reports”.

The starting point for IWM researchers Wolfgang Körner, Georg Krugel, and Christian Elsässer was a neodymium-iron-nitrogen compound based on a type of...

Im Focus: Atomic precision: technologies for the next-but-one generation of microchips

In the Beyond EUV project, the Fraunhofer Institutes for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen and for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering IOF in Jena are developing key technologies for the manufacture of a new generation of microchips using EUV radiation at a wavelength of 6.7 nm. The resulting structures are barely thicker than single atoms, and they make it possible to produce extremely integrated circuits for such items as wearables or mind-controlled prosthetic limbs.

In 1965 Gordon Moore formulated the law that came to be named after him, which states that the complexity of integrated circuits doubles every one to two...

Im Focus: Researchers demonstrate size quantization of Dirac fermions in graphene

Characterization of high-quality material reveals important details relevant to next generation nanoelectronic devices

Quantum mechanics is the field of physics governing the behavior of things on atomic scales, where things work very differently from our everyday world.

Im Focus: Graphene: A quantum of current

When current comes in discrete packages: Viennese scientists unravel the quantum properties of the carbon material graphene

In 2010 the Nobel Prize in physics was awarded for the discovery of the exceptional material graphene, which consists of a single layer of carbon atoms...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Networking 4.0: International Laser Technology Congress AKL’16 Shows New Ways of Cooperations

24.05.2016 | Event News

Challenges of rural labor markets

20.05.2016 | Event News

International expert meeting “Health Business Connect” in France

19.05.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

11 million Euros for research into magnetic field sensors for medical diagnostics

27.05.2016 | Awards Funding

Fungi – a promising source of chemical diversity

27.05.2016 | Life Sciences

New Model of T Cell Activation

27.05.2016 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>