Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

“Test and Treat” Model Offers New Strategy for Eliminating Malaria

07.02.2012
As researchers work to eliminate malaria worldwide, new strategies are needed to find and treat individuals who have malaria, but show no signs of the disease.

The prevalence of asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic malaria can be as high as 35 percent in populations with malaria and these asymptomatic individuals can serve as a reservoir for spreading malaria even in areas where disease transmission has declined.

In a new study, researchers at the Johns Hopkins Malaria Research Institute found that a strategy of actively identifying undiagnosed malaria and then treating those with the disease resulted in significantly lower prevalence of malaria cases compared to a control group. Their findings are published in the February 3 edition of the journal PLoS ONE.

“New strategies are needed, particularly in areas of declining transmission. One strategy is to screen people for malaria and treat those who are infected, even those who are not sick enough to go to the clinic,” said lead author, Catherine G. Sutcliffe, PhD, an assistant scientist with the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health’s Department of Epidemiology. “Using artemisinin combination therapy can enhance this strategy, as treatment can reduce transmission to mosquitoes. In regions of declining transmission, the burden of malaria could be reduced to such an extent that elimination is achievable.”

The study was conducted in southern Zambia, with colleagues from the Johns Hopkins Malaria Research Institute in Macha. Researchers analyzed data from surveys conducted in 2007 and between 2008 and 2009. In both surveys, households were screened for malaria using rapid diagnostic tests and treated with artemisinin combination therapy when malaria was detected.

According to the new study, a proactive test-and-treat case-detection strategy resulted in a sixfold reduction in prevalence in 2008 and 2009, with the initial parasite prevalence at 4 percent. Test and treat showed a twofold reduction in 2007, when community prevalence was higher at 24 percent.

“Proactive case detection with treatment using artemisinin-combination therapy can reduce transmission and provide indirect protection to household members. If resources permit, this strategy could be targeted to hot spots to achieve further reductions in malaria transmission,” said William J. Moss, MD, senior author of the study and associate professor with the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

Worldwide, malaria afflicts more than 225 million people. The disease kills between 800,000 and 1 million people each year, many of whom are children living in Africa.

Authors of “Reduced Risk of Malaria Parastemia Following Household Screening and Treatment: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Cohort Study” include Catherine G. Sutcliffe, PhD; Tamaki Kobayashi, PhD; Harry Hamapumbu; Timothy Shields, MA; Sungano Mharakurwa, PhD; Philip E. Thuma, MD; Thomas A. Louis, PhD; Gregory Glass, PhD; and William J. Moss, MD.

The Johns Hopkins Malaria Research Institute is a state-of-the-art research facility at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. It focuses on a broad program of basic science research to treat and control malaria, develop a vaccine and find new drug targets to prevent and cure this deadly disease.

The research was funded by the Johns Hopkins Malaria Research Institute.

Media contact: Tim Parsons, director of Public Affairs, at 410-955-7619 or tmparson@jhsph.edu

Tim Parsons | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.jhsph.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Team discovers how bacteria exploit a chink in the body's armor
20.01.2017 | University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

nachricht Rabies viruses reveal wiring in transparent brains
19.01.2017 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Traffic jam in empty space

New success for Konstanz physicists in studying the quantum vacuum

An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Sustainable Water use in Agriculture in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

19.01.2017 | Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Helmholtz International Fellow Award for Sarah Amalia Teichmann

20.01.2017 | Awards Funding

An innovative high-performance material: biofibers made from green lacewing silk

20.01.2017 | Materials Sciences

Ion treatments for cardiac arrhythmia — Non-invasive alternative to catheter-based surgery

20.01.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>