Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Teens with HIV at high risk for pregnancy, complications

02.02.2011
Teenage girls and young women infected with HIV get pregnant more often and suffer pregnancy complications more frequently than their HIV-negative peers, according to new research led by Johns Hopkins investigators.

A report on the multi-center study, based on an analysis of records from 181 patients with HIV, ages 13 to 24, treated at four hospitals over 12 years, will be published in the Feb. 2 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.

The findings are alarming for at least two reasons, the investigators say. First, teen pregnancies — planned or not — put these already vulnerable patients and their fetuses in grave danger for complications. Second, the findings signal that HIV-infected teens and young women continue to practice unsafe sexual behaviors and to have unprotected sex, the researchers say.

Pregnancy rates were especially high in one subgroup of HIV-infected youth — teens who acquired the virus behaviorally rather than during birth. Behaviorally infected teens had five times the number of pregnancies compared to their HIV-negative counterparts and were more prone to premature births and spontaneous abortions than their HIV-negative peers.

Because of its retrospective nature, the study did not capture why the patients got pregnant. The answer to this question, the researchers say, would supply critical information for future pregnancy-counseling and risk-reduction efforts.

"Our analysis revealed a problem. Now we need to figure out why that is and how we, as providers, can give appropriate counseling and care to these girls and women," says lead investigator Allison Agwu, M.D., Sc.M., a pediatric infectious disease specialist at the Johns Hopkins Children's Center.

All HIV-infected patients should be informed about pregnancy risk, including the risk of transmitting HIV to their partners during attempts to become pregnant and to their babies during the pregnancy itself, the researchers say. Therefore, physicians who treat HIV-infected youth should have regular and honest discussion about these risks, they say.

More than one-third (66) of the 181 patients in the study got pregnant, some of whom had more than one pregnancy for a total of 96 pregnancies. Premature births were more common among HIV-infected mothers (34 percent), compared with moms in the general population (22 percent) as were spontaneous abortions, 14 percent among HIV-infected moms compared with 9 percent among pregnant women in the general population.

Twenty-eight of the 130 teen girls and women infected at birth got pregnant compared with 38 of those 51 who were behaviorally infected. The pregnancy rate of behaviorally infected patients was seven times higher than the rate of those infected at birth, the researchers found. Teen girls and women with behaviorally acquired HIV tended to have repeated pregnancies more often — 37 percent of them had more than one pregnancy — than their counterparts infected at birth, of whom 14 percent got pregnant more than once.

Those infected at birth were four times more likely to choose to terminate the pregnancy — 41 percent of them did so — compared with those who contracted HIV later in life, 10 percent of whom ended the pregnancy.

Despite the small number of patients involved in the study, the researchers say their analysis shows intriguing differences among youth with HIV, depending on how they got infected in the first place.

"Our findings suggest that teens who were infected with HIV later in life may engage in different sexual behaviors than those infected at birth. Further analysis into these differences will help us find ways to prevent unwanted pregnancies and avoid complications from planned ones," said senior investigator Kelly Gebo, M.D., M.P.H., a Johns Hopkins infectious disease specialist.

Funding for the study came from the National Institutes of Health and the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation.

Conflict-of-interest disclosure: Kelly Gebo has received research funding from Tibotec, developer of anti-infective pharmaceuticals, including HIV/AIDS drugs. The terms of these arrangements are being managed by The Johns Hopkins University in accordance with its conflict-of-interest policies.

Co-authors on the study: Susie Jang, M.D., of the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston; P. Todd Korthuis, M.D. M.P.H., of Oregon Health and Science University in Portland, Ore.; and Maria Rosario G. Araneta, Ph.D., of the University of California-San Diego.

Related:

HIV Antibody Tests Unreliable for Early Infections in Teens http://www.hopkinschildrens.org/HIV-Antibody-Tests-Unreliable-For-Early-Infections-In-Teens.aspx

HIV Treatment Lagging Behind for Many Infected Youth http://www.hopkinschildrens.org/HIV_Treatment_Lagging_Behind_for_Many_Infected_Youth.aspx

Prolonged Nevirapine in Breast-Fed Babies Prevents HIV Infection but Leads to Drug-Resistant HIV http://www.hopkinschildrens.org/Prolonged-Nevirapine-in-Breast-Fed-Babies-Prevents-HIV-Infection-But-Leads-To-Drug-Resistant-HIV.aspx

Ekaterina Pesheva | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.jhmi.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Penn vet research identifies new target for taming Ebola
12.01.2017 | University of Pennsylvania

nachricht The strange double life of Dab2
10.01.2017 | University of Miami Miller School of Medicine

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

Im Focus: How to inflate a hardened concrete shell with a weight of 80 t

At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).

Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...

Im Focus: Bacterial Pac Man molecule snaps at sugar

Many pathogens use certain sugar compounds from their host to help conceal themselves against the immune system. Scientists at the University of Bonn have now, in cooperation with researchers at the University of York in the United Kingdom, analyzed the dynamics of a bacterial molecule that is involved in this process. They demonstrate that the protein grabs onto the sugar molecule with a Pac Man-like chewing motion and holds it until it can be used. Their results could help design therapeutics that could make the protein poorer at grabbing and holding and hence compromise the pathogen in the host. The study has now been published in “Biophysical Journal”.

The cells of the mouth, nose and intestinal mucosa produce large quantities of a chemical called sialic acid. Many bacteria possess a special transport system...

Im Focus: Newly proposed reference datasets improve weather satellite data quality

UMD, NOAA collaboration demonstrates suitability of in-orbit datasets for weather satellite calibration

"Traffic and weather, together on the hour!" blasts your local radio station, while your smartphone knows the weather halfway across the world. A network of...

Im Focus: Repairing defects in fiber-reinforced plastics more efficiently

Fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) are frequently used in the aeronautic and automobile industry. However, the repair of workpieces made of these composite materials is often less profitable than exchanging the part. In order to increase the lifetime of FRP parts and to make them more eco-efficient, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) and the Apodius GmbH want to combine a new measuring device for fiber layer orientation with an innovative laser-based repair process.

Defects in FRP pieces may be production or operation-related. Whether or not repair is cost-effective depends on the geometry of the defective area, the tools...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

Nothing will happen without batteries making it happen!

05.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Multiregional brain on a chip

16.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

New technology enables 5-D imaging in live animals, humans

16.01.2017 | Information Technology

Researchers develop environmentally friendly soy air filter

16.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>