Two new publications from the Berlin Charité and the University Medical Centre Mainz  and from the University of Stuttgart-Hohenheim  confirm earlier studies concerning the harmlessness of infrared-A  and its usefulness to humans. They refute concerns regarding possible detrimental effects of infrared-A, which is the main part of the Sun’s thermal radiation. In the Earth’s moderate climate zones, the infrared A-radiation reaches the Earth’s surface after being filtered by the water vapour in the Earth’s atmosphere, and is thus especially well tolerable.
These studies ignored the fact that cells in a cell culture (which are not covered by overlying skin cells and have no connection to a blood circulation) should not be exposed to the same level of irradiance as human skin (with an intact blood perfusion, a layer of overlying cells and a horny layer), if meaningful conclusions relevant to the situation in the skin of a person are to be drawn.
An earlier publication has also brought attention to the differences in effects seen when identical irradiances are used to irradiate inanimate material having no blood circulation (resulting in a surface temperature of approx. 100°C) and human skin capable of heat dissipation via the circulation (resulting in a surface temperature of approx. 38°C) .
In the studies in which supposed dangers were reported, no consideration at all was given to the fact that the results seen are dependent not only on the dose of irradiation, but also on the irradiance level: Effects seen following short exposures to very high irradiances can not be interpreted as suggesting that the same result will occur if irradiation is carried out over hours using a lower irradiance level.Additionally, some of the studies were carried out using foreskin cells obtained from infants, which are known to behave differently to skin cells.
Ultimately, the interpretation of possible effects and the avoidance of miss- or overinterpretations are of considerable importance: Even when, as claimed in the critical reports, an upregulation of enzymes capable of degrading collagen (e.g., the matrix metalloproteinases) or their gene expression were to occur, this can not automatically be interpreted as being detrimental in the sense of a promotion of skin ageing or even more far-reaching skin changes, since these effects are also seen during other processes such as wound healing.
Even a purported increase in free radicals can not categorically be considered as being unfavourable; the ambivalent relevance of free radicals has already been pointed out in an earlier publication : in the case of special white blood cells (granulocytes), the generation of free radicals is an important mechanism of action in the defence against bacteria.
Consequently, there is no reason for specific measures against the Sun’s infrared-A (e.g., in the form of special Sun protection products), especially when the fact that infrared-A has been shown to provide some protection against the unwanted effects of the Sun’s ultraviolet radiation is considered . At the same time, there is no cause for any reservations concerning the beneficial medical application of infrared-A (IRA) or water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA) radiation. However, the necessity for adequate skin and eye protection against ultraviolet (UV) in Sun's radiation remains valid, e.g., in the form of protection through textiles, sunglasses or sun protection products.Publications:
 Menezes S, Coulomb B, Lebreton C, Dubertret L. Non-coherent near infrared radiation protects normal human dermal fibroblasts from solar ultraviolet toxicity. J Invest Dermatol. 1998; 111(4): 629-33. DOI: 10.1046/j.1523-1747.1998.00338.x
Wolfgang Müller | idw
Team discovers how bacteria exploit a chink in the body's armor
20.01.2017 | University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Rabies viruses reveal wiring in transparent brains
19.01.2017 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...
Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...
Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.
While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...
Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales
Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...
Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.
As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...
19.01.2017 | Event News
10.01.2017 | Event News
09.01.2017 | Event News
20.01.2017 | Awards Funding
20.01.2017 | Materials Sciences
20.01.2017 | Life Sciences