Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Study finds 'mad cow disease' in cattle can spread widely in ANS before detectable in CNS

09.07.2012
New pathway for infection reported in the American Journal of Pathology

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or "mad cow disease") is a fatal disease in cattle that causes portions of the brain to turn sponge-like. This transmissible disease is caused by the propagation of a misfolded form of protein known as a prion, rather than by a bacterium or virus.

The average time from infection to signs of illness is about 60 months. Little is known about the pathogenesis of BSE in the early incubation period. Previous research has reported that the autonomic nervous system (ANS) becomes affected by the disease only after the central nervous system (CNS) has been infected. In a new study published online in the August issue of The American Journal of Pathology, researchers found that the ANS can show signs of infection prior to involvement of the CNS.

"Our results clearly indicate that both pathways are involved in the early pathogenesis of BSE, but not necessarily simultaneously," reports lead investigator Martin H. Groschup, PhD, Institute for Novel and Emerging Infectious Diseases at the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Riems, Germany.

To understand the pathogenesis of BSE, fifty-six calves between four and six months of age were infected orally with BSE from infected cattle. Eighteen calves were inoculated orally with BSE-negative material from calf brainstem as controls. The study also included samples collected from a calf that had died naturally of BSE. Tissue samples from the gut, the CNS, and the ANS were collected from animals every four months from 16 to 44 months after infection. The samples were examined for the presence of prions by immunohistochemistry. Samples were also used to infect experimental mice that are highly sensitive to a BSE infection.

A distinct accumulation of the pathological prion protein was observed in the gut in almost all samples. BSE prions were found in the sympathetic ANS system, located in the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord, starting at 16 months after infection; and in the parasympathetic ANS, located in the sacral region of the spinal cord and the medulla, from 20 months post infection. There was little or no sign of infection in the CNS in these samples. The sympathetic part of the ANS was more widely involved in the early pathogenesis than its parasympathetic counterpart. More bovines showing clinical symptoms revealed signs of infection in the sympathetic nervous system structures at a higher degree than in the parasympathetic tissue samples. The earliest detection of BSE prions in the brainstem was at 24 months post infection. However, infection detected in the spinal cord of one animal at 16 months post infection suggests the existence of an additional pathway to the brain.

"The clear involvement of the sympathetic nervous system illustrates that it plays an important role in the pathogenesis of BSE in cattle," notes Dr. Groschup. "Nevertheless, our results also support earlier research that postulated an early parasympathetic route for BSE."

The results, Dr. Groschup says, indicate three possible neuronal routes for the ascension of BSE prions to the brain: sympathetic, parasympathetic, and spinal cord projections, in order of importance. "Our study sheds light on the pathogenesis of BSE in cattle during the early incubation period, with implications for diagnostic strategies and food-safety measures."

David Sampson | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.elsevier.com

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Antibiotic effective against drug-resistant bacteria in pediatric skin infections
17.02.2017 | University of California - San Diego

nachricht Tiny magnetic implant offers new drug delivery method
14.02.2017 | University of British Columbia

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Biocompatible 3-D tracking system has potential to improve robot-assisted surgery

17.02.2017 | Medical Engineering

Real-time MRI analysis powered by supercomputers

17.02.2017 | Medical Engineering

Antibiotic effective against drug-resistant bacteria in pediatric skin infections

17.02.2017 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>