Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Smelling a skunk after a cold

13.08.2012
Brain changes after a stuffed nose protect the sense of smell

Has a summer cold or mold allergy stuffed up your nose and dampened your sense of smell? We take it for granted that once our nostrils clear, our sniffers will dependably rebound and alert us to a lurking neighborhood skunk or a caramel corn shop ahead.

That dependability is no accident. It turns out the brain is working overtime behind the scenes to make sure the sense of smell is just as sharp after the nose recovers.

A new Northwestern Medicine study shows that after the human nose is experimentally blocked for one week, brain activity rapidly changes in olfactory brain regions. This change suggests the brain is compensating for the interruption of this vital sense. The brain activity returns to a normal pattern shortly after free breathing has been restored.

Previous research in animals has suggested that the olfactory system is resistant to perceptual changes following odor deprivation. This new paper focuses on humans to show how that's possible. The study is published in the journal Nature Neuroscience.

"You need ongoing sensory input in order for your brain to update smell information," said Keng Nei Wu, the lead author of the paper and a graduate student in neuroscience at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine. "When your nostrils are blocked up, your brain tries to adjust to the lack of information so the system doesn't break down. The brain compensates for the lack of information so when you get your sense of smell back, it will be in good working order."

For the study, Wu completely blocked the nostrils of 14 participants for a week while they lived in a special low-odor hospital room. At night, participants were allowed to breathe normally while they slept in the room.

After the smell deprivation, researchers found an increase in activity in the orbital frontal cortex and a decrease of activity in the piriform cortex, two regions related to the sense of smell.

"These changes in the brain are instrumental in maintaining the way we smell things even after seven days of no smell," Wu said.

When unrestricted breathing was restored, people were immediately able to perceive odors. A week after the deprivation experience, the brain's response to odors had returned to pre-experimental levels, indicating that deprivation-caused changes are rapidly reversed.

Such a rapid reversal is quite different from other sensory systems, such as sight, which typically have longer-lasting effects due to deprivation. The olfactory system is more agile, Wu suggested, because smell deprivation due to viral infection or allergies is common.

This study also has clinical significance relating to upper respiratory infection and sinusitis, especially when such problems become chronic, at which point ongoing deprivation could cause more profound and lasting changes, Wu noted.

"It also implies that deprivation has a significant impact on the brain, rather than on the nose itself," Wu said. "More knowledge about how the system reacts to short-term deprivation may provide new insights into how to deal with this problem in a chronic context."

Other Northwestern authors include Bruce K. Tan, James D. Howard, David B. Conley and Jay A. Gottfried, the senior author.

The research was supported by grants R01DC010014 and K08DC007653 from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders of the National Institutes of Health and grant M01-RR00048 from the National Center for Research Resources of the National Institutes of Health.

Marla Paul | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.northwestern.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Team discovers how bacteria exploit a chink in the body's armor
20.01.2017 | University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

nachricht Rabies viruses reveal wiring in transparent brains
19.01.2017 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Traffic jam in empty space

New success for Konstanz physicists in studying the quantum vacuum

An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by...

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Sustainable Water use in Agriculture in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

19.01.2017 | Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Helmholtz International Fellow Award for Sarah Amalia Teichmann

20.01.2017 | Awards Funding

An innovative high-performance material: biofibers made from green lacewing silk

20.01.2017 | Materials Sciences

Ion treatments for cardiac arrhythmia — Non-invasive alternative to catheter-based surgery

20.01.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>