Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


Even the sickest babies benefit from breast-feeding

Nurses lead patient education program for mothers of newborns

Pediatric researchers at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia describe a successful program in which nurses helped mothers attain high rates of breast-feeding in very sick babies--newborns with complex birth defects requiring surgery and intensive care.

Many of these highly vulnerable newborns immediately experience a paradoxical situation. Their mother's milk helps to fend off infection and provides easily digestible, nutritious ingredients that can reduce the infant's stay in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). But because the babies are often in critical condition, breast-feeding may not be considered a priority, or even be feasible, when compared to urgent medical problems.

"Human milk is important for all newborns, but especially for sick infants," said project mentor Diane L. Spatz, Ph.D., R.N.-B.C., nurse researcher, of The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Breast milk protects an infant in the NICU from necrotizing enterocolitis—a devastating disease of the bowel—and from a host of infectious diseases. "It is of critical importance that all mothers make the informed decision to provide human milk for their infants, and that nurses provide evidence-based lactation care and support in order for mothers to achieve success," added Spatz.

The study, a continuous quality improvement (CQI) project, appears in the July/September 2010 issue of the Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing.

Spatz and co-author Taryn M. Edwards, B.S.N., R.N.-B.C., also of Children's Hospital, describe a series of steps called the Transition to Breast Pathway, in which NICU nurses systematically guide the mother in breast-feeding practices, which culminated in a majority of the infants in the study (58 out of 80) feeding at their mother's breast before being discharged from the hospital.

The 80 newborns in the CQI project were patients in the Children's Hospital NICU during 2008 and 2009. All were born with complex surgical anomalies, such as abdominal wall defects, abnormalities in the esophagus, or congenital diaphragmatic hernia (a defect in the diaphragm, the muscle separating the chest cavity from the abdomen).

"This project was driven by bedside nurses, who carried out a goal of systematically integrating evidence-based lactation support and education as part of standard nursing care," said Spatz. Edwards and Spatz note in their study that Children's Hospital strongly supports breast-feeding, but for these medically fragile newborns, mothers may have to wait days or weeks before they are able to even hold their babies.

Therefore, the nurses followed a step-wise system called the Transition to Breast Pathway, which begins with the mother learning to pump breast milk shortly after delivery. Before the baby is able to nurse at the breast, mothers learn to provide mouth care—supplying the infant with a bit of human milk on a cotton swab or a pacifier. Nurses also teach skin-to-skin care, letting the mother hold the child close to her body. The skin-to-skin contact reduces stress in both child and mother, increases the mother's milk supply, and nurtures the mother-infant bond.

Although not all the mothers were willing or able to transition to breast-feeding, 58 of the 80 infants were breast-feeding before they were discharged. For each step of the pathway, success rates improved in the second nine months of the project compared to the first six months.

"This CQI project demonstrates that even the most vulnerable infants can transition to at-breast feeds prior to discharge," said Spatz. "This pathway can be replicated in intensive-care nurseries throughout the world, allowing infants to achieve improved health outcomes, and their mothers to have the opportunity to follow the natural path of bonding that breastfeeding allows for."

Funding support for this study came from the Maternal-Child Health Leadership Academy, sponsored by Sigma Theta Tau International and Johnson & Johnson.

"An Innovative Model for Achieving Breast-feeding Success in Infants with Complex Surgical Anomalies," Journal of Perinatal & Neonatal Nursing, July-September 2010, pp. 246-253. doi: 10.1097/JPN.0b013e3181e8d517

About The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia: The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia was founded in 1855 as the nation's first pediatric hospital. Through its long-standing commitment to providing exceptional patient care, training new generations of pediatric healthcare professionals and pioneering major research initiatives, Children's Hospital has fostered many discoveries that have benefited children worldwide. Its pediatric research program is among the largest in the country, ranking third in National Institutes of Health funding. In addition, its unique family-centered care and public service programs have brought the 460-bed hospital recognition as a leading advocate for children and adolescents. For more information, visit

John Ascenzi | EurekAlert!
Further information:

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Resolving the mystery of preeclampsia
21.10.2016 | Universitätsklinikum Magdeburg

nachricht New potential cancer treatment using microwaves to target deep tumors
12.10.2016 | University of Texas at Arlington

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: New 3-D wiring technique brings scalable quantum computers closer to reality

Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.

"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...

Im Focus: Scientists develop a semiconductor nanocomposite material that moves in response to light

In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.

A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...

Im Focus: Diamonds aren't forever: Sandia, Harvard team create first quantum computer bridge

By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.

"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...

Im Focus: New Products - Highlights of COMPAMED 2016

COMPAMED has become the leading international marketplace for suppliers of medical manufacturing. The trade fair, which takes place every November and is co-located to MEDICA in Dusseldorf, has been steadily growing over the past years and shows that medical technology remains a rapidly growing market.

In 2016, the joint pavilion by the IVAM Microtechnology Network, the Product Market “High-tech for Medical Devices”, will be located in Hall 8a again and will...

Im Focus: Ultra-thin ferroelectric material for next-generation electronics

'Ferroelectric' materials can switch between different states of electrical polarization in response to an external electric field. This flexibility means they show promise for many applications, for example in electronic devices and computer memory. Current ferroelectric materials are highly valued for their thermal and chemical stability and rapid electro-mechanical responses, but creating a material that is scalable down to the tiny sizes needed for technologies like silicon-based semiconductors (Si-based CMOS) has proven challenging.

Now, Hiroshi Funakubo and co-workers at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, in collaboration with researchers across Japan, have conducted experiments to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

Agricultural Trade Developments and Potentials in Central Asia and the South Caucasus

14.10.2016 | Event News

World Health Summit – Day Three: A Call to Action

12.10.2016 | Event News

Latest News

Resolving the mystery of preeclampsia

21.10.2016 | Health and Medicine

Stanford researchers create new special-purpose computer that may someday save us billions

21.10.2016 | Information Technology

From ancient fossils to future cars

21.10.2016 | Materials Sciences

More VideoLinks >>>