Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Scripps Research Institute Study Points to Potential New Therapies for Cancer and Other Diseases

28.11.2012
Researchers at The Scripps Research Institute (TRSI) are fueling the future of cancer treatment by improving a powerful tool in disease defense: the body’s immune system. By revealing a novel but widespread cell signaling process, the scientists may have found a way to manipulate an important component of the immune system into more effectively fighting disease.

The study, recently published online ahead of print by the journal Blood, shows that disabling a particular enzyme, called ItpkB, in mice improves the function of a type of immune cell called Natural Killer cells.

“This is an exciting finding because it could possibly lead to the development of drugs that improve Natural Killer cell function,” said TSRI Associate Professor Karsten Sauer, PhD, who led the study. "Natural Killer cells have gained clinical interest as innovative biological therapeutics for certain cancers and also in certain infectious diseases.”

The Body’s ‘SWAT Team’

Natural Killer cells patrol the body and detect characteristic alterations on the surface of cancer cells or virus-infected cells. Through a complicated and little understood signaling machinery—a domino effect of molecular reactions in a cell that ultimately produces a certain signal—Natural Killer cells then destroy such ”stressed” cells.

Compared to other types of immune cells, Natural Killer cells kill these cells quickly. This makes Natural Killer cells important early responders of the immune system. Not surprisingly, researchers have explored engaging this "SWAT team" of the body therapeutically, particularly in blood cancers.

However, to date, the therapeutic efficacy of Natural Killer cells has been limited. “A key bottleneck is our limited understanding of signaling mechanisms that dampen Natural Killer cell function,” Sauer said.

Sauer and colleagues’ new research reveals crucial details of this puzzle.

A Way to Prime the Attack

The Sauer group had previously identified ItpkB as a key regulator of immune function. ItpkB acts primarily by producing IP4, a small molecule messenger that controls the functions of various other important signaling molecules. IP4 can improve or inhibit signaling depending on the cell type in which it is produced.
The new research showed that Natural Killer cells from mice lacking ItpkB show elevated signaling and function better than Natural Killer cells that have the enzyme. As a result, mice lacking ItpkB are more effective than mice expressing ItpkB in attacking cells that display characteristic surface changes of cancer cells.

“The enzyme ItpkB has unique features that facilitate its highly specific inhibition by small molecules,” said Sauer. "Our findings suggest that such compounds could possibly be used to improve Natural Killer cell function therapeutically. If successful, this could overcome a bottleneck and engage the body's SWAT team to fight cancer."

In addition to Sauer, Eugene Park of Washington University School of Medicine was a co-first author of the study, "Inositol Tetrakisphosphate Limits NK Cell Effector Functions by Controlling Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Signaling.” Other authors include Sabine Siegemund, Luise Sternberg and Stephanie Rigaud of TSRI and Anthony R. French, Joseph A. Wahle, A. Helena Jonsson, Wayne M. Yokoyama and co-corresponding author Yina H. Huang of Washington University School of Medicine. For more information, see http://bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/early/2012/11/20/blood-2012-05-429241.abstract.

The research was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health (AI070845, GM088647, AI089805 and AI007606), The Leukemia and Lymphoma Society Scholar Award 1440-11 and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft fellowship SI 1547/1-1.

About The Scripps Research Institute

The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) is one of the world's largest independent, not-for-profit organizations focusing on research in the biomedical sciences. Over the past decades, TSRI has developed a lengthy track record of major contributions to science and health, including laying the foundation for new treatments for cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, hemophilia, and other diseases. The institute employs about 3,000 people on its campuses in La Jolla, CA, and Jupiter, FL, where its renowned scientists—including three Nobel laureates—work toward their next discoveries. The institute's graduate program, which awards PhD degrees in biology and chemistry, ranks among the top ten of its kind in the nation. For more information, see www.scripps.edu.
For information:
Office of Communications
Tel: 858-784-8134
Fax: 858-784-8136
press@scripps.edu

Mika Ono | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.scripps.edu

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Biofilm discovery suggests new way to prevent dangerous infections
23.05.2017 | University of Texas at Austin

nachricht Another reason to exercise: Burning bone fat -- a key to better bone health
19.05.2017 | University of North Carolina Health Care

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can the immune system be boosted against Staphylococcus aureus by delivery of messenger RNA?

Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....

Im Focus: A quantum walk of photons

Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.

The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....

Im Focus: Turmoil in sluggish electrons’ existence

An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.

We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...

Im Focus: Wafer-thin Magnetic Materials Developed for Future Quantum Technologies

Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...

Im Focus: World's thinnest hologram paves path to new 3-D world

Nano-hologram paves way for integration of 3-D holography into everyday electronics

An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Marine Conservation: IASS Contributes to UN Ocean Conference in New York on 5-9 June

24.05.2017 | Event News

AWK Aachen Machine Tool Colloquium 2017: Internet of Production for Agile Enterprises

23.05.2017 | Event News

Dortmund MST Conference presents Individualized Healthcare Solutions with micro and nanotechnology

22.05.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

How herpesviruses win the footrace against the immune system

26.05.2017 | Life Sciences

Water forms 'spine of hydration' around DNA, group finds

26.05.2017 | Life Sciences

First Juno science results supported by University of Leicester's Jupiter 'forecast'

26.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>