Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Rye more filling than wheat

12.02.2010
Wholegrain bread is good and good for you, as most people know. But it is not only the fiber-rich bran, the outer shell of the grain, that is healthful.

On the contrary, research at the Lund University Faculty of Engineering shows that bread baked with white rye flour, which is flour made from the inner, white part of the rye kernel, leads to better insulin and blood sugar levels compared with wheat bread with rye bran.

White rye flour thus leads to much better values than both regular wheat flour and rye bran. At the same time, much of the bread that is sold in stores today in most countries is in fact baked with wheat flour and bran from various grains.

The great difference between white rye and white wheat surprises the researchers.

"Precisely what it is that makes rye lead to a stable blood sugar curve is as yet unknown. But we are getting closer and closer to an answer. There are several different types of rye, and all not all types have the same effect, which means that some of them can be omitted from future studies. The rye flour that is sold in stores is often a mixture of different types," says Liza Rosén, a doctoral candidate in Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry at the Lund University Faculty of Engineering, who has led the study. The research is part of the EU project "Healthgrain", in which researchers study how wholemeal products can be used to prevent diseases including type 2 diabetes and heart and vascular diseases.

According to Liza Rosén, if you want to optimize the health benefits, you should eat porridge or bread made from whole grain, where all the parts of the grain are included.

"This gives you all the benefits of rye. The bran includes many healthful fibers, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. This also helps give a feeling of satiety and helps lower blood sugar responses over the long term. On the other hand, we did not see such good results regarding blood sugar and insulin directly after the meal," she says.

In meal tests the researchers also found that individuals who ate boiled rye kernels for breakfast were fuller and ate significantly less for lunch, more precisely 16 percent less in energy intake, compared with those who ate bread made from white flour. They also found that both bread and hot cereal made with white rye and wholegrain rye are more filling than white wheat bread. The most effective form was rye porridges.

"It is probably the water in the porridge that increases the feeling of satiety. But the water has to be mixed into the product. If you drink the same amount of water with rye bread, the results are not as good," she explains.

The original objective of Liza Rosén's research was to try to determine the reasons that wholegrain products are so beneficial, in that they have been shown to protect against cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancer. There is also strong evidence that whole grains can prevent type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance.

"Since rye has been shown to yield low insulin responses, I started with that. A high insulin response can lead to insulin resistance in the body, that is, that the body has a hard time responding to insulin. Insulin resistance can result in high blood sugar, high blood pressure, and bad blood fats, which in turn increase the risk of age-related diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Since I have found so much of interest, I haven't had yet time to look into barley, for instance, but perhaps in the future. On the other hand, several other researchers at Lund University have studied barley and its health benefits," says Liza Rosén.

Liza Rosén has not carried out any studies of how rye affects humans over the long term, but her colleague Ulrika Andersson did such a study on mice. For a half year a number of mice were fed wholegrain wheat or wholegrain rye, respectively. The results show that the mice that ate wheat gained significantly more weight than the mice on a rye diet.

"A possible explanation would be that wheat prompts a higher insulin response than rye, which means that the cells in the body can store more fat. The fact that rye contains more soluble fibers than wheat also plays a role, since they probably prevent the uptake of fat and other nutritional substances in the intestine."

There are only a few studies of how wholegrain forms of various cereal grains affect our health, so there is a great need for more detailed studies of the issue. Enhanced knowledge in this field creates a base for the development of a new generation of custom-designed wholegrain products that can counteract different types of diseases associated with our prosperity.

How the tests were done:

Study 1:
Twelve subjects ate breakfasts consisting of white wheat bread, porridge from wheat flour, white rye bread, wholegrain rye bread, wholegrain rye bread with lactic acid, hot cereal porridge from wholegrain rye, and wheat bread with rye bran, all in rotation. The researchers monitored blood sugar, insulin, and satiety over the following three hours. The results for the various products were then compared with each other for each individual subject (that is, subject 1's response to wholegrain bread was compared with subject 1's response to wheat bread and subject 2's response with subject 2's responses, etc.).

Since the researchers found that the products that led to low insulin release provided greater satiety after three hours, they designed a second study to address the question: Can rye products that lead to low insulin response provide greater satiety and reduce the food intake in the following meal?

Study 2:
Ten subjects ate breakfasts consisting of white wheat bread, boiled wholegrain rye kernels (the whole grain), boiled whole wheat kernels, white rye bread, white rye bread baked with acid (corresponding to sourdough bread), wholegrain rye bread, and wholegrain rye bread baked with acid. The researchers monitored blood sugar, insulin, and satiety over the following 4.5 hours. For lunch, the subjects were allowed to eat as many meatballs and pasta as they wanted, until they felt full. Then the results were compared for the various products with each other and for each individual subject.

In an ongoing third study, the researchers are investigating different kinds of rye.

For more information, please contact Liza Rosén, doctoral candidate in Applied Nutrition phone: +46 (0)46-222 95 34, Liza.Rosen@appliednutrition.lth.se,
Contact information for deputy supervisor: Elin Östman, postdoctoral fellow, Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, +46 (0)46-222 83 18,

Elin.Ostman@appliednutrition.lth.se.

For the mouse model: Ulrika Andersson, doctoral candidate Molecular Signaling, +46 (0)46-222 81 28, Ulrika.Andersson@med.lu.se ,

Supervisor Cecilia Holm, cecilia.holm@med.lu.se, 046-222 85 81. Both doctoral candidates are currently on parental leave but read mail regularly and answer the phone whenever possible.

Pressofficer Kristina Lindgärde;
kristina.lindgarde@kansli.lth.se;+46-709753 500

Kristina Lindgärde | idw
Further information:
http://www.vr.se

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Researchers release the brakes on the immune system
18.10.2017 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

nachricht Norovirus evades immune system by hiding out in rare gut cells
12.10.2017 | University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Terahertz spectroscopy goes nano

20.10.2017 | Information Technology

Strange but true: Turning a material upside down can sometimes make it softer

20.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

NRL clarifies valley polarization for electronic and optoelectronic technologies

20.10.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>