Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


Rye more filling than wheat

Wholegrain bread is good and good for you, as most people know. But it is not only the fiber-rich bran, the outer shell of the grain, that is healthful.

On the contrary, research at the Lund University Faculty of Engineering shows that bread baked with white rye flour, which is flour made from the inner, white part of the rye kernel, leads to better insulin and blood sugar levels compared with wheat bread with rye bran.

White rye flour thus leads to much better values than both regular wheat flour and rye bran. At the same time, much of the bread that is sold in stores today in most countries is in fact baked with wheat flour and bran from various grains.

The great difference between white rye and white wheat surprises the researchers.

"Precisely what it is that makes rye lead to a stable blood sugar curve is as yet unknown. But we are getting closer and closer to an answer. There are several different types of rye, and all not all types have the same effect, which means that some of them can be omitted from future studies. The rye flour that is sold in stores is often a mixture of different types," says Liza Rosén, a doctoral candidate in Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry at the Lund University Faculty of Engineering, who has led the study. The research is part of the EU project "Healthgrain", in which researchers study how wholemeal products can be used to prevent diseases including type 2 diabetes and heart and vascular diseases.

According to Liza Rosén, if you want to optimize the health benefits, you should eat porridge or bread made from whole grain, where all the parts of the grain are included.

"This gives you all the benefits of rye. The bran includes many healthful fibers, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. This also helps give a feeling of satiety and helps lower blood sugar responses over the long term. On the other hand, we did not see such good results regarding blood sugar and insulin directly after the meal," she says.

In meal tests the researchers also found that individuals who ate boiled rye kernels for breakfast were fuller and ate significantly less for lunch, more precisely 16 percent less in energy intake, compared with those who ate bread made from white flour. They also found that both bread and hot cereal made with white rye and wholegrain rye are more filling than white wheat bread. The most effective form was rye porridges.

"It is probably the water in the porridge that increases the feeling of satiety. But the water has to be mixed into the product. If you drink the same amount of water with rye bread, the results are not as good," she explains.

The original objective of Liza Rosén's research was to try to determine the reasons that wholegrain products are so beneficial, in that they have been shown to protect against cardiovascular diseases and certain types of cancer. There is also strong evidence that whole grains can prevent type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance.

"Since rye has been shown to yield low insulin responses, I started with that. A high insulin response can lead to insulin resistance in the body, that is, that the body has a hard time responding to insulin. Insulin resistance can result in high blood sugar, high blood pressure, and bad blood fats, which in turn increase the risk of age-related diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Since I have found so much of interest, I haven't had yet time to look into barley, for instance, but perhaps in the future. On the other hand, several other researchers at Lund University have studied barley and its health benefits," says Liza Rosén.

Liza Rosén has not carried out any studies of how rye affects humans over the long term, but her colleague Ulrika Andersson did such a study on mice. For a half year a number of mice were fed wholegrain wheat or wholegrain rye, respectively. The results show that the mice that ate wheat gained significantly more weight than the mice on a rye diet.

"A possible explanation would be that wheat prompts a higher insulin response than rye, which means that the cells in the body can store more fat. The fact that rye contains more soluble fibers than wheat also plays a role, since they probably prevent the uptake of fat and other nutritional substances in the intestine."

There are only a few studies of how wholegrain forms of various cereal grains affect our health, so there is a great need for more detailed studies of the issue. Enhanced knowledge in this field creates a base for the development of a new generation of custom-designed wholegrain products that can counteract different types of diseases associated with our prosperity.

How the tests were done:

Study 1:
Twelve subjects ate breakfasts consisting of white wheat bread, porridge from wheat flour, white rye bread, wholegrain rye bread, wholegrain rye bread with lactic acid, hot cereal porridge from wholegrain rye, and wheat bread with rye bran, all in rotation. The researchers monitored blood sugar, insulin, and satiety over the following three hours. The results for the various products were then compared with each other for each individual subject (that is, subject 1's response to wholegrain bread was compared with subject 1's response to wheat bread and subject 2's response with subject 2's responses, etc.).

Since the researchers found that the products that led to low insulin release provided greater satiety after three hours, they designed a second study to address the question: Can rye products that lead to low insulin response provide greater satiety and reduce the food intake in the following meal?

Study 2:
Ten subjects ate breakfasts consisting of white wheat bread, boiled wholegrain rye kernels (the whole grain), boiled whole wheat kernels, white rye bread, white rye bread baked with acid (corresponding to sourdough bread), wholegrain rye bread, and wholegrain rye bread baked with acid. The researchers monitored blood sugar, insulin, and satiety over the following 4.5 hours. For lunch, the subjects were allowed to eat as many meatballs and pasta as they wanted, until they felt full. Then the results were compared for the various products with each other and for each individual subject.

In an ongoing third study, the researchers are investigating different kinds of rye.

For more information, please contact Liza Rosén, doctoral candidate in Applied Nutrition phone: +46 (0)46-222 95 34,,
Contact information for deputy supervisor: Elin Östman, postdoctoral fellow, Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, +46 (0)46-222 83 18,

For the mouse model: Ulrika Andersson, doctoral candidate Molecular Signaling, +46 (0)46-222 81 28, ,

Supervisor Cecilia Holm,, 046-222 85 81. Both doctoral candidates are currently on parental leave but read mail regularly and answer the phone whenever possible.

Pressofficer Kristina Lindgärde;;+46-709753 500

Kristina Lindgärde | idw
Further information:

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Space observation with radar to secure Germany's space infrastructure

Satellites in near-Earth orbit are at risk due to the steady increase in space debris. But their mission in the areas of telecommunications, navigation or weather forecasts is essential for society. Fraunhofer FHR therefore develops radar-based systems which allow the detection, tracking and cataloging of even the smallest particles of debris. Satellite operators who have access to our data are in a better position to plan evasive maneuvers and prevent destructive collisions. From April, 25-29 2018, Fraunhofer FHR and its partners will exhibit the complementary radar systems TIRA and GESTRA as well as the latest radar techniques for space observation across three stands at the ILA Berlin.

The "traffic situation" in space is very tense: the Earth is currently being orbited not only by countless satellites but also by a large volume of space...

Im Focus: Researchers Discover New Anti-Cancer Protein

An international team of researchers has discovered a new anti-cancer protein. The protein, called LHPP, prevents the uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells in the liver. The researchers led by Prof. Michael N. Hall from the Biozentrum, University of Basel, report in “Nature” that LHPP can also serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of liver cancer.

The incidence of liver cancer, also known as hepatocellular carcinoma, is steadily increasing. In the last twenty years, the number of cases has almost doubled...

Im Focus: Researchers at Fraunhofer monitor re-entry of Chinese space station Tiangong-1

In just a few weeks from now, the Chinese space station Tiangong-1 will re-enter the Earth's atmosphere where it will to a large extent burn up. It is possible that some debris will reach the Earth's surface. Tiangong-1 is orbiting the Earth uncontrolled at a speed of approx. 29,000 km/h.Currently the prognosis relating to the time of impact currently lies within a window of several days. The scientists at Fraunhofer FHR have already been monitoring Tiangong-1 for a number of weeks with their TIRA system, one of the most powerful space observation radars in the world, with a view to supporting the German Space Situational Awareness Center and the ESA with their re-entry forecasts.

Following the loss of radio contact with Tiangong-1 in 2016 and due to the low orbital height, it is now inevitable that the Chinese space station will...

Im Focus: Alliance „OLED Licht Forum“ – Key partner for OLED lighting solutions

Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, provider of research and development services for OLED lighting solutions, announces the founding of the “OLED Licht Forum” and presents latest OLED design and lighting solutions during light+building, from March 18th – 23rd, 2018 in Frankfurt a.M./Germany, at booth no. F91 in Hall 4.0.

They are united in their passion for OLED (organic light emitting diodes) lighting with all of its unique facets and application possibilities. Thus experts in...

Im Focus: Mars' oceans formed early, possibly aided by massive volcanic eruptions

Oceans formed before Tharsis and evolved together, shaping climate history of Mars

A new scenario seeking to explain how Mars' putative oceans came and went over the last 4 billion years implies that the oceans formed several hundred million...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Industry & Economy
Event News

New solar solutions for sustainable buildings and cities

23.03.2018 | Event News

Virtual reality conference comes to Reutlingen

19.03.2018 | Event News

Ultrafast Wireless and Chip Design at the DATE Conference in Dresden

16.03.2018 | Event News

Latest News

For graphite pellets, just add elbow grease

23.03.2018 | Materials Sciences

Unique communication strategy discovered in stem cell pathway controlling plant growth

23.03.2018 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

Sharpening the X-ray view of the nanocosm

23.03.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>