In the paper “A genome-wide RNA interference screen reveals an essential CREB3L2-ATF5-MCL1 survival pathway in malignant glioma with therapeutic implications,” appearing this week as an Advanced Online Publication, UMass Medical School Professor Michael R. Green, MD, PhD, and colleagues use a genome-wide RNAi screening tool to identify a dozen genes that affect the function of a crucial protein necessary for glioma cells to grow; further research found a key pathway that appears in laboratory cultures and mouse models to be susceptible to two cancer drugs already in use for other types of cancer.
A hallmark of cancer is uncontrolled cell growth, often caused by overexpression of genes that help cells survive, or underexpression of those genes that induce normal cell death. Genes that are expressed highly in cancer cells and are essential for their survival are appealing targets for drug therapy.
Green’s lab has in recent years developed a clever way of scanning the genome to identify genes that appear to promote the natural process of programmed cell death called “apoptosis”, or that inhibit the growth of cells; Green and colleagues used a technique called genome-wide RNA interference screening—to identify novel genes that regulate the expression of a transcription factor called ATF5 in malignant glioma cells. The discovery of at least one previously unknown genetic pathway that appears to regulate this key transcription factor, and the subsequent determination that the cancer drugs sorafenib and temozolomide inhibit glioma growth point to dramatic new possibilities for potential therapeutics and are exciting advances at the frontier of cancer biology and genetic expression.
ATF5 was first identified as an important pro-survival factor by Dr. Green in 2002.About the University of Massachusetts Medical School
Jim Fessenden | EurekAlert!
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In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.
Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...
Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
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The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
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