Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Retina transplantation improved by manipulating recipient retinal microenvironment

12.07.2012
A research team in the United Kingdom has found that insulin-like growth factor (IGF1) impacts cell transplantation of photoreceptor precursors by manipulating the retinal recipient microenvironment, enabling better migration and integration of the cells into the adult mouse retina.
Their study is published in the current issue of Cell Transplantation (21:5), now freely available on-line at http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/cog/ct/.

"Photoreceptor death is an irreversible process and represents one of the largest causes of untreatable blindness in the developed world," said Dr. Rachael A. Pearson, study co-author and a member of the Department of Genetics, University College London Institute of Ophthalmology. "Stem cell replacement therapy offers a novel strategy for retinal repair, but since it is likely that a large number of cells would be needed to restore vision, enhancement of the process is needed."

In this study, the researchers used adeno-associated viral vectors (AAVs) to introduce three growth factors previously reported to play a role in photoreceptor development - IGF1, fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) - into the retinas of adult mice. At three weeks post-transplantation, the number of integrated, differentiated photoreceptor cells present in the growth factor-treated retinas was compared to the untreated controls.

The researchers noted that all three growth factors are present during retinal development and all have been shown to affect photoreceptor differentiation. FGF2 has been shown to have varying effects based on the development stage of the cells to which it is applied. In addition, recent studies have shown that CNTF "acts transiently to suppress photoreceptor differentiation."

"AAV mediated expression of IGF1 led to significantly increased levels of cell integration," wrote the researchers. "However, over expression of FGF2 had no significant effect on cell numbers and CNTF led to a significant decrease in cell integration."

They concluded that it was possible to manipulate the environment of the recipient retina for photoreceptor cell transplantation using viral vectors, and that IGF1 provided a greater response.

"A potential consequence of IGF1 upregulation might be the improved or strengthened synaptic connectivity of the transplanted cells," said Dr. Pearson. "Newly born neurons, including photoreceptors, are vulnerable to pruning and apoptosis if appropriate synaptic connections with downstream targets are not formed and maintained."

The researchers noted that IGF1 has also been associated with the upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important modulator of synaptic plasticity in the adult brain after injury and along with exercise-induced cognitive function.

"This important study demonstrates that, by modifying the environment, growth factors impact cell transplantation survival," said Dr. John Sladek, professor of neurology and pediatrics at the University of Colorado School of Medicine. "While this study focused on the retina, growth factors also are believed to alter cell transplantation and survival in other brain regions which means that these findings should lead to more research on other serious neurological disorders."

Contact: Dr. Rachael A. Pearson, Department of Genetics, University College London Institute of Ophthalmology, 11-43 Bath St., London, EC1V 9EL, UK.
Tel. +44-0-20 7608 6902
Fax. +44-0- 20 7608 6903
Email: rachaelpearson@ucl.ac.uk
Citation: West, E. L.; Pearson, R. A.; Duran, Y.; Gonzalez-Cordero, A.; Maclaren, R. E.; Smith, A. J.; Sowden, J. C.; Ali, R. R. Manipulation of the recipient retinal environment by ectopic expression of neurotrophic growth factors can improve transplanted photoreceptor integration and survival. Cell Transplant. 21(5):871-887; 2012.

The Coeditor-in-chief's for CELL TRANSPLANTATION are at the Diabetes Research Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine and Center for Neuropsychiatry, China Medical University Hospital, TaiChung, Taiwan. Contact, Camillo Ricordi, MD at ricordi@miami.edu or Shinn-Zong Lin, MD, PhD at shinnzong@yahoo.com.tw or David Eve, PhD at celltransplantation@gmail.com

David Eve | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/cog/ct/

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Millions through license revenues
27.04.2017 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

nachricht New High-Performance Center Translational Medical Engineering
26.04.2017 | Fraunhofer ITEM

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Fighting drug resistant tuberculosis – InfectoGnostics meets MYCO-NET² partners in Peru

28.04.2017 | Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Wireless power can drive tiny electronic devices in the GI tract

28.04.2017 | Medical Engineering

Ice cave in Transylvania yields window into region's past

28.04.2017 | Earth Sciences

Nose2Brain – Better Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis

28.04.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>