Obesity has emerged as one of the most critical health care problems in the U.S. and worldwide with nearly 70 percent of the U.S. population currently overweight or obese.
Of major concern are the disproportionate cases of severe obesity (body mass index [BMI] ¡Ý 40 kg/m2), which tripled during the 1990s. Nearly a third of adults and 17 percent of children in the U.S. are now obese with 65 million additional cases estimated by 2030. While obesity confers serious health concerns and increased all-cause mortality, the vast majority of deaths are due to cardiovascular causes such as ischemic heart disease and stroke.
Researcher prospectively followed 208 overweight or obese patients (BMI ¡Ý25 kg/m2) receiving medical/dietary (48 percent) or bariatric surgical (52 percent) weight loss treatment during a period of approximately one year. They measured plasma metabolic parameters and vascular endothelial function using ultrasound at baseline and following weight loss intervention, and stratified analyses by median plasma insulin levels.
They found that individuals with higher baseline plasma insulin levels (above median >12 uIU/ml), who had greater than 10 percent weight loss had significantly improved brachial artery macro-vascular flow-mediated vasodilation and micro-vascular reactive hyperemia. In contrast, vascular function did not change significantly in the lower insulin group (¡Ü12 uIU/mL) despite similar degree of weight loss. In analyses using a five percent weight loss cut-point, only micro-vascular responses improved in the higher insulin group.
¡°Our study has shown that insulin status is an important determinant of the positive effect of weight reduction on vascular function with hyperinsulinemic patients deriving the greatest benefit,¡± explained corresponding author Noyan Gokce, MD, FACC, associate professor of medicine at BUSM and Director of Echocardiography at BMC. ¡°Reversal of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction may represent key therapeutic targets for cardiovascular risk reduction in obesity,¡± he added. Their data also suggest that at least 10% weight loss is needed for comprehensive vascular benefit, which may in part explain the negative findings of the recently published Look Ahead study findings (NEJM 2013).
Funding for this study was provided by National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants HL081587,HL1145675; HL084213; HL109790; HL102299; HL081587; HL083801; HL083269; HL75795; K12 HL083781; HL081587; HL1145675; HL081587; HL1145675; HL084213 and P30DK046200.and an American Heart Association Postdoctoral Fellowship grant 12POST11780028.
Gina Orlando | EurekAlert!
Biofilm discovery suggests new way to prevent dangerous infections
23.05.2017 | University of Texas at Austin
Another reason to exercise: Burning bone fat -- a key to better bone health
19.05.2017 | University of North Carolina Health Care
Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....
Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.
The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....
An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.
We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...
Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.
Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...
An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...
24.05.2017 | Event News
23.05.2017 | Event News
22.05.2017 | Event News
26.05.2017 | Life Sciences
26.05.2017 | Life Sciences
26.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy