Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Researchers discover normal version of molecular pathway affected in poor-prognosis childhood leukemia

07.06.2013
Through genetic engineering of laboratory models, researchers at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Norris Cotton Cancer Center have uncovered a vulnerability in the way cancer cells diverge from normal regenerating cells that may help treat children with leukemia as reported in the journal PNAS on June 3, 2013.
Dartmouth researchers are trying to understand the key pathways that distinguish how a normal blood cell grows and divides compared to the altered growth that occurs in leukemia. In addition to the treatment of leukemia, the work has relevance for expanding umbilical cord blood or bone marrow stem cells for transplantation.

Leukemia often occurs due to chromosomal translocations, which are broken chromosomes that cause blood cells to grow uncontrollably. One gene that is involved in chromosomal translocations found at high frequency in childhood leukemia is the MLL1 (Mixed Lineage Leukemia 1) gene. Conventional chemotherapy is very ineffective at curing patients with this translocation, in contrast to other types of childhood leukemia, which are relatively curable.

Using genetic engineering, the researchers generated a mouse model to discover genes that are regulated by MLL1 in hematopoietic stem cells, the cells that give rise to all white and red blood cell types. In the course of these studies, they identified several unique properties of the normal MLL1 pathway in hematopoietic stem cells that may be exploited to better treat leukemia harboring MLL1 translocations.

"We discovered that many genes that depend upon the normal MLL1 protein are involved in maintaining hematopoietic stem cells, thus manipulating this pathway could be a way to expand cells from normal bone marrow or umbilical cord blood donors to improve transplantation of these cell types, which is a procedure used to treat certain chemotherapy-resistant cancers," said Patricia Ernst, PhD, co-director Cancer Mechanisms, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Norris Cotton Cancer Center, associate professor of Genetics and of Microbiology and Immunology at the Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH.

As principle investigator, Ernst and her team set out to discover the genetic pathways controlled by the normal form of the MLL1 protein and leukemogenic MLL1 fusion proteins specifically in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Delineation of these pathways will facilitate research by her group and others aimed at developing strategies to kill leukemia cells without harming HSCs, which are often profoundly affected by current chemotherapeutic regimens. In performing this research, they also discovered a new molecular pathway that controls normal HSC biology.

"We demonstrate in this study, that some direct MLL1 target genes in HSCs are affected by Menin loss (a protein involved in the inherited disorder, Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia), and some are not," said Ernst. "This is a fundamentally important observation that demonstrates this category of chromatin modifiers utilizes different protein complexes/mechanisms to target different classes of genes in different cell types."

Ernst points out that this highly desirable outcome that would not have been predicted for this targeted therapy and may illustrate that drugs blocking the interaction of these two proteins (currently under development by other groups) leave normal hematopoiesis intact. She is working on follow-up studies of this finding.

Research funded by NIH HL090036 and RR16437 as well as additional grants from American Cancer Society, Gabrielle’s Angel Foundation for Cancer Research, Lady Tata Memorial Trust, and the Lauri Strauss Leukemia Foundation.

About Norris Cotton Cancer Center at Dartmouth-Hitchcock

Norris Cotton Cancer Center combines advanced cancer research at Dartmouth College and the Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth College with patient-centered cancer care provided at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, at Dartmouth-Hitchcock regional locations in Manchester, Nashua, and Keene, NH, and St. Johnsbury, VT, and at 12 partner hospitals throughout New Hampshire and Vermont. It is one of 41 centers nationwide to earn the National Cancer Institute's "Comprehensive Cancer Center" designation. Learn more about Norris Cotton Cancer Center research, programs, and clinical trials online at cancer.dartmouth.edu.

For more information contact Donna Dubuc at (603) 653-3615.

Donna Dubuc | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.hitchcock.org

More articles from Health and Medicine:

nachricht Another reason to exercise: Burning bone fat -- a key to better bone health
19.05.2017 | University of North Carolina Health Care

nachricht Disrupted fat breakdown in the brain makes mice dumb
19.05.2017 | Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn

All articles from Health and Medicine >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Turmoil in sluggish electrons’ existence

An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.

We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...

Im Focus: Wafer-thin Magnetic Materials Developed for Future Quantum Technologies

Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.

Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...

Im Focus: World's thinnest hologram paves path to new 3-D world

Nano-hologram paves way for integration of 3-D holography into everyday electronics

An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...

Im Focus: Using graphene to create quantum bits

In the race to produce a quantum computer, a number of projects are seeking a way to create quantum bits -- or qubits -- that are stable, meaning they are not much affected by changes in their environment. This normally needs highly nonlinear non-dissipative elements capable of functioning at very low temperatures.

In pursuit of this goal, researchers at EPFL's Laboratory of Photonics and Quantum Measurements LPQM (STI/SB), have investigated a nonlinear graphene-based...

Im Focus: Bacteria harness the lotus effect to protect themselves

Biofilms: Researchers find the causes of water-repelling properties

Dental plaque and the viscous brown slime in drainpipes are two familiar examples of bacterial biofilms. Removing such bacterial depositions from surfaces is...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Dortmund MST Conference presents Individualized Healthcare Solutions with micro and nanotechnology

22.05.2017 | Event News

Innovation 4.0: Shaping a humane fourth industrial revolution

17.05.2017 | Event News

Media accreditation opens for historic year at European Health Forum Gastein

16.05.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New approach to revolutionize the production of molecular hydrogen

22.05.2017 | Materials Sciences

Scientists enlist engineered protein to battle the MERS virus

22.05.2017 | Life Sciences

Experts explain origins of topographic relief on Earth, Mars and Titan

22.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>